Carbohydrates and Lipids

Organic = contains carbon
 ALL living things contain carbon
 So ALL living things are organic
means “large molecule.”
 are made from thousands or even
hundreds of thousands of smaller
 are formed by polymerization, the
process in which large compounds are
built by joining smaller ones together.
Smaller units, called monomers, join
together to form polymers, which are
large compound formed from
combinations of many monomers.
 Polymer=Marcomolecule
Large molecules that contain carbon
and are found in living things
 Four groups of organic compounds
found in living things are
1)carbohydrates 2)lipids, 3)nucleic
acids, and 4)proteins.
are made up of carbon, hydrogen, and
oxygen atoms
 Its monomers are called
monosaccharides (one sugar)
 usually in a ratio of 1:2:1 (1 carbon, 2
hydrogen, 1 oxygen).
 Are used as main source of energy.
 Most end in –ose.
 Plants and some animals also use
carbohydrates for structural purposes.
There are three types of carbohydrates:
1) Monosaccharide 2) Disaccharides 3)
 Single or simple sugar molecules are also
called monosaccharides. (Ex. Glucose,
galatose, fructose) Formula- C6H12O6
 Two monosaccharides combined to form
disaccharides (ex. Sucrose, Lactose, Maltose)
Formula – C12H22O11
 Large macromolecules formed from many
monosaccharides are known as
polysaccharides or complex sugars(Ex.
Glycogen, Cellulose)
Here are some examples of carbohydrates!
Commonly known as fats, oils, and
 Its monomers are fatty acids and
 Lipids are made of carbon and
hydrogen atoms.
 Lipids can be used to store energy.
 Lipids are not soluble in water.
 Some lipids are important parts of
biological membranes and waterproof
Three Types of Lipids
 Triglycerides
 Waxes
Three Types of Lipids
Phospholipids- two fatty acids joined to
one glycerol
Three Types of Lipids
Triglycerides- three fatty acids joined to
one glycerol
Three Types of Lipids
Waxes – many fatty acids joined to
many glycerols
Two Types of Fats
Saturated and Unsaturated
If each carbon atom in a lipid’s fatty acid chain is
joined to another carbon by a single bond, the
lipid is said to be saturated (contains the maximum
possible number of hydrogen atoms)
Solid at room temp
Bad for you
Examples: Butter, Lard, Shortening
Two types of Fats
If at least one carbon-carbon double bond
is on a fatty acid chain, the chain is
 Are liquid at room temp.
 Examples: peanut oil, corn oil, soybean oil
 Good for you
Two Types of Fats
If there is more than one double bonded
carbon, the chain is polyunsaturated.
 Stupid good for you!!!!