Carbohydrates and Lipids

advertisement
Organic = contains carbon
 ALL living things contain carbon
 So ALL living things are organic

means “large molecule.”
 are made from thousands or even
hundreds of thousands of smaller
molecules.
 are formed by polymerization, the
process in which large compounds are
built by joining smaller ones together.

Smaller units, called monomers, join
together to form polymers, which are
large compound formed from
combinations of many monomers.
 Polymer=Marcomolecule

Large molecules that contain carbon
and are found in living things
 Four groups of organic compounds
found in living things are
1)carbohydrates 2)lipids, 3)nucleic
acids, and 4)proteins.

are made up of carbon, hydrogen, and
oxygen atoms
 Its monomers are called
monosaccharides (one sugar)
 usually in a ratio of 1:2:1 (1 carbon, 2
hydrogen, 1 oxygen).
 Are used as main source of energy.
 Most end in –ose.
 Plants and some animals also use
carbohydrates for structural purposes.

There are three types of carbohydrates:
1) Monosaccharide 2) Disaccharides 3)
Polysaccharides
 Single or simple sugar molecules are also
called monosaccharides. (Ex. Glucose,
galatose, fructose) Formula- C6H12O6
 Two monosaccharides combined to form
disaccharides (ex. Sucrose, Lactose, Maltose)
Formula – C12H22O11
 Large macromolecules formed from many
monosaccharides are known as
polysaccharides or complex sugars(Ex.
Glycogen, Cellulose)


Here are some examples of carbohydrates!
Commonly known as fats, oils, and
waxes.
 Its monomers are fatty acids and
glycerol.
 Lipids are made of carbon and
hydrogen atoms.
 Lipids can be used to store energy.
 Lipids are not soluble in water.
 Some lipids are important parts of
biological membranes and waterproof
coverings.

Three Types of Lipids
Phospholipids
 Triglycerides
 Waxes

Three Types of Lipids

Phospholipids- two fatty acids joined to
one glycerol
Three Types of Lipids
Continued…..

Triglycerides- three fatty acids joined to
one glycerol
Three Types of Lipids
Continued…….
•
Waxes – many fatty acids joined to
many glycerols
Two Types of Fats





Saturated and Unsaturated
If each carbon atom in a lipid’s fatty acid chain is
joined to another carbon by a single bond, the
lipid is said to be saturated (contains the maximum
possible number of hydrogen atoms)
Solid at room temp
Bad for you
Examples: Butter, Lard, Shortening
Two types of Fats
Continued…….
If at least one carbon-carbon double bond
is on a fatty acid chain, the chain is
unsaturated.
 Are liquid at room temp.
 Examples: peanut oil, corn oil, soybean oil
 Good for you

Two Types of Fats
Cont……….
If there is more than one double bonded
carbon, the chain is polyunsaturated.
 Stupid good for you!!!!
