Fats and Lipids Lipids • Lipids are varied in structure. – Many are insoluble in water because they lack polar groups. Types of Lipids and their Functions – 1. Fat provides insulation and energy storage. – 2. Phospholipids form plasma (cell) membranes – 3. Steroids are important cell messengers. – 4. Waxes are for protection/insulation. Lipids • Fats and Oils =3 fatty acids + Glycerol – A fatty acid is a long hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl (acid) group at one end. (-COOH) • Because the carboxyl group is a polar group, fatty acids can be slightly soluble in water. • Most fatty acids in cells contain 16 to 18 carbon atoms per molecule. The longer the chain the less water soluble it is. – Glycerol is a water-soluble compound with three hydroxyl groups. Lipids • Triglycerides are glycerol joined to three fatty acids by condensation synthesis. – Fats are triglycerides containing saturated fatty acids (e.g., butter is solid at room temperature). Generally from animals – Oils are triglycerides with unsaturated fatty acids (e.g., corn oil is liquid at room temperature). Generally from plants – **Animals use fat rather than glycogen for long-term energy storage; fat stores more energy.(9cal/g) Types of Fatty Acids • Saturated fatty acids have no double bonds between their carbon atoms. • Unsaturated fatty acids have double bonds in the carbon chain where there are less than two hydrogens per carbon atom. • Saturated animal fats are associated with circulatory disorders; plant oils can be substituted for animal fats in the diet. Lipids • Waxes – Waxes form a protective covering that prevent water loss in plants, maintain animal skin and fur. Steroids – Cholesterol is a part of an animal cell’s membrane and a precursor of other steroids, including the sex hormones. – Testosterone is the male sex hormone. – Steroids act as messengers and help turn on or turn off genes. Thus they help control cell activity Lipids Phospholipids – Phosphate group is the polar head – Hydrocarbon chains become the nonpolar tails. Hey! Hey! Hey! This is why phospholipids are important!! – The plasma membrane which surrounds living cells is a phospholipid bilayer.