Review for Final Exam - Zoo

Name: ____________________________________________ Block: _________ Date: ______________
-Review for Psychology FinalUnit 1:
1. Who started the first psychological lab in Leipzig Germany in 1879?
2. What role did William James have in the development of modern psychology?
3. Why are Mary Whiton Calkins, Ruth Howard and George Sanchez important in early
4. What are the major fields of psychology, and what does each one study?
5. What is a hypothesis?
6. Why is random assignment crucial to creating an experiment?
7. What is the difference between a survey and a questionnaire?
8. What are two essential elements of true experiments?
9. Explain the steps in the scientific method.
10. Why do researchers sometimes use animals for research?
11. Why is it necessary to establish guidelines for research on humans?
12. What roles does the APA play in establishing specific considerations psychologists must
13. Explain the use and value of humans and other animals in behavioral research, including
their ethical treatment.
Be able to define the following terms:
 psychology
 basic research
 applied research
 naturalistic observation
 case study
 survey method
 population
 random sample
 longitudinal study
 cross-sectional study
 experiment
 hypothesis
 independent variable
 dependent variable
 experimental group
 control group
 random assignment
 double blind procedure
 placebo
 replication
 ethical standards
Unit 2:
1. What are the primary parts of a typical neuron and the function of each? (Be able to
illustrate/identify the different parts)
2. What impact do neurotransmitters and drugs have on human behavior?
3. Explain how neural information is transmitted.
4. How did Phineas Gage’s accident change the treatment of mentally ill people later?
5. What would happen if the two halves of your brain were separated down the middle of the
corpus callosum? Could you still function and come across as a normal person?
6. What is brain plasticity?
7. Explain how plasticity is the brain’s capacity for modification following damage (especially in
Be able to define the following terms:
 neuron
 dendrite
 nucleus
 soma/cell body
 axon
 axon terminal/branches
 myelin sheath
 action potential
 refractory period
 resting potential
 all-or-nothing principle
 synapse
 neurotransmitters
 sympathetic nervous system
 parasympathetic nervous system
 plasticity
 frontal lobe
 corpus callosum
Unit 3:
1. Who were the significant contributors and contributions to current understandings to the
study of classical, operant conditioning?
2. How did the study of Baby Albert demonstrate the manipulation of emotions?
3. What are the effects of reinforcement and punishment on behavior?
4. Describe the principles and processes involved in both classical conditioning and operant
5. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of reinforcement and punishment on behavior.
Be able to define the following terms:
 learning
 classical conditioning
 stimulus
 response
 unconditioned response (UCR)
 unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
 conditioned response (CR)
 conditioned stimulus (CS)
 extinction
 spontaneous recovery
 generalization
 discrimination
Unit 4:
1. What role do the id, ego and super ego play in Freud’s theory of personality?
2. What is the definition of self-actualization?
3. How do psychologists attempt to assess personality?
4. Describe the psychoanalytic perspective on personality as defined by Sigmund Freud.
5. Identify important contributors and their theories of personality.
6. Distinguish between objective and projective techniques in personality assessment.
Be able to define the following terms:
 personality
 psychoanalysis
 free association
 preconscious
 unconscious
 id
 ego
 superego
 defense mechanisms
 psychosexual stages
 inferiority complex
 projective tests
 Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
 Rorschach inkblot test
 self-actualization
 unconditional positive regard