Communication and Motivation

Practicing Leadership: Principles
and Applications
Chapter 6: Psychology II:
Communication and Motivation
• “There is only one way under high Heaven to get
anybody to do anything. Did you ever stop to
think of that? Yes, just one way. And that is by
making the other person want to do it.
Remember there is no other way.”
▫ Dale Carnegie
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
ERG Theory
Reinforcement Theory
• Reinforcement theory: A motivation model that
argues that behavior can be shaped by controlling the
consequences of that behavior.
• Three Types:
▫ Classical Conditioning
▫ Operant Conditioning
▫ Social Learning Theory
Herzberg’s Dual Factor Theory
Hygiene Factors
Motivational Factors
Absence of :
Opportunity for:
Job security
Quality of supervision
Quality of interpersonal
Good working conditions
Adequacy of pay and fringe
Job challenge
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
Theory X Leaders and Managers
Theory Y Leaders and Managers
People inherently dislike work and will try to
avoid it.
People can view work as an activity as natural
as rest or play.
People must be coerced, controlled, or
threatened with punishment to achieve goals.
People will exercise self-direction and selfcontrol if they are committed to the objectives
of the task.
People will avoid responsibilities and seek
formal direction whenever possible.
The average person can learn to accept and
even seek responsibility.
Most people place security above all other
factors associated with work and will display
little ambition.
The ability to make innovative decisions is
widely dispersed throughout the general
population and is not necessarily the sole
province of those in management positions.
McClellan’s Trichotomy of Needs
• Power Motivation
• Drive and Achievement Motivation
• Need for Affiliation
Every leader is on a continuum for each need
Equity Theory
Expectancy Theory
“The single biggest problem in communication is
the illusion it has taken place.”
▫ George Bernard Shaw
• Transactional Communication: the idea that all
communication involves a sender and a receiver. Both
the sender and the receiver determine the meaning of
the communication that has taken place.
Encoding and Decoding
Interpersonal Communication Process
Types of Communications
• Verbal versus nonverbal communication
• Intentional versus unintentional communication
• Formal versus informal communication
• Upward versus downward versus lateral
Directions of Communications
Factors Leading to Breakdowns in
Differing frames of reference
Selective perception
Semantic problems
Constraints on time
Communication overload
Cultural differences
Improving Communication
• Using descriptive, as opposed to evaluative, speech
• Taking a collaborative approach to problem-solving
• Communicating with spontaneity, rather than from hidden
strategies or agenda
• Demonstrating empathy
• Promoting equality across and within levels of an organization
• Trying to hear all sides of a debate rather than simply sticking to
one’s own agenda