Chapter 27. The Age of Imperialism

Chapter 21. The
Height of Imperialism
• 1800-1914
The New Imperialism
• In the 19th century a new phase of
Western expansion into Asia and Africa
began – they became a source of
industrial raw materials and a new
market for manufactured goods – in the
past goods were traded for spices, tea,
and silk, now they were traded for oil, tin,
and rubber
• Silk and Spice trade lose
• Colonies viewed as markets
for European goods, and
sources of raw materials
• Instead of trading posts,
Europeans wanted complete
control of Colonies
• National pride
• Social Darwinism
Imperialism – the extension of a
nation’s power over other lands
• European countries had set up colonies in
the Americas and trading posts around
Africa – they used to be content with a
few trading posts, but now they wanted
direct control over vast territories – this
was called “new imperialism”
• Reasons why Westerners wanted to increase their
search for colonies after 1880:
– Economic motives – wanted direct control over the
areas with raw materials and markets
– Rivalries – as European affairs grew tense, they wanted
to acquire colonies to gain an advantage over their rival
– Colonies were a source of national prestige
– Social Darwinism and racism – social Darwinists
believed that the most fit nations would prevail and
racist believed that race determines traits and
capabilities and that some races are superior to others
– Religious and humanitarian motives – believed that
Europeans had a moral responsibility to civilize
primitive people – to bring them the Christian message
and democracy and capitalism
• “White Man’s Burden”
• Belief that Europeans had a
right and responsibility to
bring benefits of civilization
and Christianity to
Enabling Factors
• Steamships, trains and
• Quinine—protection
from malaria
Superior weapons
(Maxim gun)
Forms of Control
• Direct:
Local Rulers were removed from
power and replaced with a new set of
officials brought from the mother
• Indirect- local rulers were
allowed to maintain their position of
authority and status
• Assimilation--educate
everyone and make them become
more European
Great Imperial Powers in
Colonial Takeover in
Southeast Asia
Dutch control
British take Malay
Peninsula and Burma
• Singapore
becomes world’s
busiest port
War 1898
US takes Philippines and
Guam (also Puerto Rico and
Cuba in Caribbean)
• Philippine Insurrection
(led by Emilio Aguinaldo)
put down in 1902
• US modernizes