Matter Notes

Let’s Look at Matter
 Matter: stuff
 classified into homogeneous or heterogeneous based on
number of phases
 Phase: physically separate part of a material which has a
uniform set of properties
 EX: phases in a glass of ice water
 1. glass
 2. water
 3. ice
Two Types of Material
 Heterogeneous: material has more than one phase (granite)
 Homogeneous: material that only has a single phase (water)
 We often look at how materials combine to form mixtures
in Chemistry
 Mixture: physical combination of two or more different
materials. Can be homogeneous or heterogeneous.
 Heterogeneous matter is always considered a mixture.
 Homogeneous matter can be a mixture (solution) or a
substance (element or compound)
Homogeneous Mixtures
 One type of homogeneous mixture is called a solution.
 Solutions have two parts
 Solute: dissolved material(s)
 Ex: Sugar
 Solvent: material that the solute dissolves in
 Ex: Water (universal solvent)
 The solvent might also be the major component of a solution
Liquid Solutions
 When a solid chemical is mixed with water to create a
solution, it has a certain concentration, or molarity. The
higher the molarity, the more particles are dissolved in the
solution. Molarity can be shown with a large M.
Gas Solutions
 Not all solutions are liquids!
 Can you think of an example of a gas solution?
 Air is composed of nitrogen, oxygen, and other gases
 Depending on where you are from, it can also contain things
like soot, pollen
 Substances: “pure” materials which always have the same
 Example: Pure sulfur or Distilled Water
 If a substance is composed of one kind of atom, this is what
we know as elements.
 If these elements come together, they form compounds.
 Always have same composition!!
 Substances that consist of only one type of atom
 Cannot be broken down into any simpler substance
 Exist as atoms or molecules
 Can be separated into simpler substances by chemical means
 Two or more elements in a fixed ratio
 In Chemistry, we study two types of substances: Organic
and Inorganic
 We primarily look at inorganic substances in this class, but if
you go on to other classes, you will learn more organic
Types of Matter
 We use the properties of substances to determine the type of
matter we are looking at (ex. Color, taste, density,
 Each type of matter has two types of properties: Physical
and Chemical
Physical Properties
 Characteristics of a substance which can be observed or
measured without changing the chemical makeup of a
 Density
 Size
 Mass
 Volume
 One major physical property that we looked at in the pop can
lab was solubility
 Solubility: the property of a solid, liquid, or a gas (solute)
to dissolve in a solvent
substance has
the highest
What is the
solubility of
KCl at 60
At what
is the
solubility of
40g/100 g
Chemical Properties
 How a substance reacts to form a new substance or new
 Based on “reactivity”
 Does the substance react with other substances?
 Does it react vigorously?
Changes in Matter
 Matter can go through changes
 These changes can be either physical or chemical as well
Physical Change
Chemical Change
Do not change the chemical
makeup of the changed material
(no new substance formed)
Result in a new material with a
different chemical makeup being
formed (new substance formed)
Change only the physical properties Change both physical and chemical
of a material
properties of a material
Relatively simple to reverse
Very difficult to reverse
Look to be fairly simple changes
Look more dramatic
Not likely to be accompanied by
changes in color, temperature,
state, or smell
Often accompanied by change in
color, temperature, state, or smell
Pre-Lab Break Down
1. Purpose of the lab
-In your own words
2. Materials needed for this lab
3. Steps for the lab
-Yes, this includes all parts!
- In your own words
4. Pre-lab Questions
Pre-lab Questions
What is the difference between a physical change and a
chemical change?
2. What are four clues that indicate a chemical change?
3. What could happen if HCl or hydrochloric acid comes in
contact with your skin?