# Cultural Geography - Chapter 1

## AT THE WORLD

Chapter 1

CHAPTER 1, SECTION 1

Globes and Maps: Projections

Determining Location:

Latitude

Longitude

Global Grid (absolute location)

Hemispheres

Physical Maps

Political Maps

Thematic Maps

GLOBES AND MAPS

The Earth is a 3-Dimensional sphere. We also call this a globe .

A map is 2-Dimensional. A map allows us to make sense of a 3-D globe on a 2-D piece of paper.

LONGITUDE AND LATITUDE

We use longitude and latitude to determine location

Together they make up the grid system . A grid is a box (square) on a map.

For latitude , think “flat” lines

The Equator is a line of latitude. It is zero degrees latitude.

For longitude , think “long” lines

The Prime Meridian is a line of longitude. It is zero degrees longitude.

GREAT CIRCLE ROUTES

Going from Miami to London

A straight line on a map is not the fastest route.

A straight line on a globe is the fastest route.

When you draw a straight line on a globe, it appears to bend on a map

PROJECTIONS: PLANAR PROJECTION

When the Earth just looks like a circle

Most accurate at the center. The further out we look, the more elongated things get

Think “Plane” (a flat surface)

PROJECTIONS: CYLINDRICAL PROJECTION

When the globe is turned into a rectangle

Most accurate at the equator, and least accurate at the poles

Antarctica is not that big

Think “Cylinder”

PROJECTIONS: CONIC PROJECTION

Similar to a planar projection

More accurate when indicating distances and directions

Think “Cone”

OTHER PROJECTIONS

Winkel Tripel Projection Goode’s Projections

Mercator Projection

Robinson Projection

HEMISPHERES

The Earth is divided into four hemispheres:

Northern Hemisphere

Southern Hemisphere

Eastern Hemisphere

Western Hemisphere

THE FOUR HEMISPHERES

Compass Rose

Cardinal Directions

Intermediate Directions

Scale Bar

Key

Boundary Lines

Cities/Capitals

SMALL-SCALE MAPS, LARGE-SCALE MAPS

Small-Scale Map

Large-Scale Map

In a small-scale map, the Eiffel Tower looks small. In a large-scale map, the Eiffel Tower looks large

MAPS

There are three main types of maps:

Physical Maps : which shows Earth’s physical features

(lakes, mountains, etc.)

Political Maps : which shows boundaries, cities, and states (helps with politics)

Thematic Maps : which is basically every other type of map. These maps have themes, and can help illustrate anything.

PHYSICAL MAP

POLITICAL MAP

THEMATIC MAP

Qualitative Map

: symbols and colors

Flow-line Map

: illustrate movement

CHAPTER 1, SECTION 2

Why is it important to understand geography?

Elements of Geography

Absolute Location and Relative Location

Place and Regions

Physical Systems and Human Systems (pretty much what this class is about)

Research Methods

The Bigger Picture of Geography

Geography as a Career

WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND

GEOGRAPHY?

ELEMENTS OF GEOGRAPHY

Absolute Location

: Exactly where something is located.

Relative Location

: Where something is compared to where something else is.

PLACE AND REGIONS

Place

: A particular space

Regions

: Areas with similar characteristics

Formal Region

: A region that has a common characteristic throughout

The Great Plains

Remembering: Collegiate Greeks want to throw a “Formal” in The Great Plains

Functional Region

: A region that has a central place, with surroundings linked to it

Pretty much any city in the world (Metropolis and the suburbs)

Remembering: Washington, D.C. is dys”function”al

Perceptual Region

The Bible Belt

: A region based on perception (ideas and feelings)

What is your “perception” of the South?

PHYSICAL SYSTEMS AND HUMAN

SYSTEMS

Physical Geography: Earth’s physical features

What does the Earth look like here?

An

ecosystem

is a community of plants and animals that depend on one another for survival

Human Geography: Earth’s cultural features

What do the people do here? What do they eat?

Movement

: The spread of people, goods, and ideas

Human-environment interaction:

exactly what the name

suggests.

RESEARCH METHODS

Direct Observation

: look around

Mapping:

How do you illustrate the land on paper? You make a map. Designing and making maps =

cartography

Interviewing:

You get dropped off in the middle of Africa. You don’t really know where you are, but there are a lot of people. What do you do?

Bizarre Foods

Analyzing Statistics:

the easiest way for us to learn about another place

Rainfall, average temperature, etc.

Using Technology:

Combining statistics with technology paints an even better picture

Geographic Information Systems (GIS):

computer tools that process and organize data and satellite images with other types of information gathered by geographers and scientists

GEOGRAPHY: THE BIGGER PICTURE

Geography has an effect on:

Past Environments: What did Florida look like 1 million years ago?

Politics: John Boehner’s opinion on global warming

Society and Culture: A society and its culture is largely based on its surroundings

Economies: How are locations chosen for economic activities?