CHAPTER 1, SECTION 1
Globes and Maps: Projections
Global Grid (absolute location)
Reading a Map
GLOBES AND MAPS
The Earth is a 3-Dimensional sphere. We also call this a globe .
A map is 2-Dimensional. A map allows us to make sense of a 3-D globe on a 2-D piece of paper.
LONGITUDE AND LATITUDE
We use longitude and latitude to determine location
Together they make up the grid system . A grid is a box (square) on a map.
For latitude , think “flat” lines
The Equator is a line of latitude. It is zero degrees latitude.
For longitude , think “long” lines
The Prime Meridian is a line of longitude. It is zero degrees longitude.
GREAT CIRCLE ROUTES
Going from Miami to London
A straight line on a map is not the fastest route.
A straight line on a globe is the fastest route.
When you draw a straight line on a globe, it appears to bend on a map
PROJECTIONS: PLANAR PROJECTION
When the Earth just looks like a circle
Most accurate at the center. The further out we look, the more elongated things get
Think “Plane” (a flat surface)
PROJECTIONS: CYLINDRICAL PROJECTION
When the globe is turned into a rectangle
Most accurate at the equator, and least accurate at the poles
Antarctica is not that big
PROJECTIONS: CONIC PROJECTION
Similar to a planar projection
More accurate when indicating distances and directions
Winkel Tripel Projection Goode’s Projections
The Earth is divided into four hemispheres:
THE FOUR HEMISPHERES
READING A MAP
SMALL-SCALE MAPS, LARGE-SCALE MAPS
In a small-scale map, the Eiffel Tower looks small. In a large-scale map, the Eiffel Tower looks large
There are three main types of maps:
Physical Maps : which shows Earth’s physical features
(lakes, mountains, etc.)
Political Maps : which shows boundaries, cities, and states (helps with politics)
Thematic Maps : which is basically every other type of map. These maps have themes, and can help illustrate anything.
: symbols and colors
: illustrate movement
CHAPTER 1, SECTION 2
Why is it important to understand geography?
Elements of Geography
Absolute Location and Relative Location
Place and Regions
Physical Systems and Human Systems (pretty much what this class is about)
The Bigger Picture of Geography
Geography as a Career
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND
ELEMENTS OF GEOGRAPHY
: Exactly where something is located.
: Where something is compared to where something else is.
PLACE AND REGIONS
: A particular space
: Areas with similar characteristics
: A region that has a common characteristic throughout
The Great Plains
Remembering: Collegiate Greeks want to throw a “Formal” in The Great Plains
: A region that has a central place, with surroundings linked to it
Pretty much any city in the world (Metropolis and the suburbs)
Remembering: Washington, D.C. is dys”function”al
The Bible Belt
: A region based on perception (ideas and feelings)
What is your “perception” of the South?
PHYSICAL SYSTEMS AND HUMAN
Physical Geography: Earth’s physical features
What does the Earth look like here?
is a community of plants and animals that depend on one another for survival
Human Geography: Earth’s cultural features
What do the people do here? What do they eat?
: The spread of people, goods, and ideas
exactly what the name
: look around
How do you illustrate the land on paper? You make a map. Designing and making maps =
asking people questions about what they know.
You get dropped off in the middle of Africa. You don’t really know where you are, but there are a lot of people. What do you do?
the easiest way for us to learn about another place
Rainfall, average temperature, etc.
Combining statistics with technology paints an even better picture
Geographic Information Systems (GIS):
computer tools that process and organize data and satellite images with other types of information gathered by geographers and scientists
GEOGRAPHY: THE BIGGER PICTURE
Geography has an effect on:
Past Environments: What did Florida look like 1 million years ago?
Politics: John Boehner’s opinion on global warming
Society and Culture: A society and its culture is largely based on its surroundings
Economies: How are locations chosen for economic activities?