Sections 1-3 Historian: study & write about the past Archaeologist: look for physical evidence in artifacts and fossils. Anthropologist: study how people interact What do the three areas have in common? How are they different? Historians Archeologists anthropologist s Which one is the archeologist and which one is the historian? How do you know? Artifacts: weapons, tools & other things made by humans Fossils: traces of plants or animals that have been preserved in rock B.C. – Before Christ A.D. – Anno Domini (in the year of the/ our Lord) Our calendar comes from the Catholic Church. Other cultures are on different years than we are, as we discussed earlier. Jewish calendar – 5771 Muslim calendar – 1389 You will also see, BCE, which means, Before Common Era. CE, means, Common Era, both replace B.C. & A.D. Paleolithic-2.5 million years to 8000 B.C. –Old Stone Age Paleolithic people were nomadic hunters & gatherers. Their diet consisted of nuts, berries and grains. Occasionally, men would go on animal hunts for meat, hides and bones. What do you think the hides and bones were used for? The Ice Ages lasted from about 100,000 B.C. to 8, 000 B.C. were a time of extreme cold as thick ice sheets covered many parts of the earth. Neolithic -8000 B.C. to 4000 B.C. - New Stone Age People began to domesticate, or tame animals and plants for human use. Farming Revolution occurs – no longer have to hunt and gather in small groups More food = more population Specialization develops Neolithics used copper to make tools & weapons. Later combined copper & tin to make bronze, a stronger metal. Neolithic community Catal Huyuk ruins Think about what is going to be different now that people are living in large communities. What types of changes will need to be made as a result of a larger population that was not needed before? Turn and talk to a neighbor about your prediction. Two of the earliest known communities to be discovered are in the Middle East. Jericho, between current day Israel and Jordan and Catal Huyuk, in present day Turkey. Between 6700-5700 BC, it was home to about 6,000 people. What does that tell us about life in Catal Huyuk if only 6,000 people lived there over one thousand years? What is the difference between a farming village & a civilization? Why do you think civilizations grew up around rivers? Control of the water supply, and better farming techniques led to more food being grown. More food means a larger population can be supported. Farming villages develop into civilizations that form a government, a military, a social class system, religious beliefs and art. Sumer: city-state that formed around 3000 B. C. Sumerians were the 1st to build ziggurats, or large temples, with shrines at the top, shaped like a square, tiered, wedding cake. Practiced polytheism. What the heck is polytheism? poly theos many gods Sumerians were the first to: develop a writing systemcuneiform. develop written literature- Epic of Gilgamesh. Invented the wheel, plow and sailboat. Number system based on 60, 60 seconds in 1 minute and 60 minutes in 1 hour and 360 degrees in a circle. 12 month calendar year based on moon phases. Sumerians also formed 3 social classes, can you name them? Hint, hint, need to know this for your test Priests, kings Craftsmen, merchants, farmers, fishermen Enslaved people Scribes, or record keepers came from wealthy families who later became government officials. In ancient days, people who were educated earned more income. Today, do people who have a higher education earn more money than people who don’t? Why? Feb 13 2010 How much is higher education worth in cold hard money? A college master's degree is worth $1.3 million more in lifetime earnings than a high school diploma, according to a recent report from the U.S. Census Bureau. 2340 B.C. Sargon, king of the Akkadians conquers all of Mesopotamia & established the first known empire. By 1800’s B.C. Babylonian king, Hammurabi wrote a law code in an effort to make the law fair for everyone. 900 B.C. the Assyrians take control of Mesopotamia with their well organized & well equipped army to protect their lands. They were the first to use iron weapons. Capital city was Nineveh, where have you heard of Nineveh? The Assyrians lived much like the other Mesopotamians. Writings were Babylonian, the were polytheists, and also punished people harshly for breaking the law. Assyrians had the first known library with a collection of 25,000 clay tablets of stories and songs. Descendents of the Babylonians, the Chaldeans rebel after 300 years of cruel treatment King Nebuchadnezzar moves the capital city to Babylon which quickly becomes the largest & most wealthy city. Hanging Gardens: myth or real? Skilled workers who made pottery, cloth, and metal products, or artisans, traded with caravans, or passing merchants at the crossroads of the Persian Gulf and Mediterranean Sea. Babylon became a center for science as well. They believed changes in the sky revealed plans of the gods. Astronomers, people who study the heavens, mapped the stars, planets, and phases of the moon. http://natgeotv.com/ca/known- universe/videos/ancient-astronomy Did you get all that?