Periodic Table 100 Carbon has this many electrons in its valence

Periodic Table
100 Carbon has this many electrons in its valence shell
200 The atomic mass represents this – number of protons and neutrons
300 The atomic number represents this – number of protons in the nucleus
400 This is the number of molecules in a mole of NaCl, Na=23, Cl=35 – 6.02x1023
500 This is the atomic number of sulfur - 16
100 These bonds hold a water molecule together – polar covalent
200 These bonds are responsible for water being cohesive - hydrogen
300 Name two reasons that water’s high specific heat is important – moderates
surface temp, keeps stable temp for aquatic and coastal environments
400 Why is water a good solvent? – interacts with polar substances and ionic
500 Why is water as a solid less dense than it is as a liquid – water molecules are
evenly spaced in a crystalline lattice as a solid
100 pH of water - 7
200 pH measures what – concentration of hydrogen ions
300 As the pH value drops, what is happening to the concentration of hydrogen ions
– it is increasing
400 Describe the inverse relationship between hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions –
when one increases, the other decreases
500 If the pH of a substance is 3, what is the concentration of hydroxide ions
– 1x10-11
Functional Groups
100 What functional group is present in ATP? – phosphate group
200 What is an important feature of the hydroxyl functional group? polarity
300 These two functional groups are found in all amino acids – amino and carboxyl
400 What is an important feature of the sulfahydryl group? Give one example of
when this occurs. – forms disulfide bridges – protein tertiary structure
500 What is the difference between the carboxyl and carbonyl groups? – the
presence of a hydroxyl group
100 These reactions join monomers into polymers
200 These are the building blocks of a nucleic acid
300 Explain the difference between primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary
DD 400 This is the difference between alpha and beta linkages – alpha = all facing
the same direction, beta = alternating
500 Explain the difference in structure between structural CHO’s and storage CHO’s
– storage have alpha linkages and can be broken down by most species, structural
have beta linkages which cannot be broken down by most species
100 Enzymes belong to this class of macromolecule - proteins
200 This is what enzymes do (their function) – catalyze chemical reactions
300 Describe the effect of both high and low heat on enzymes.
400 What is the difference between competitive and noncompetitive inhibition?
DD 500 How does feedback inhibition regulate metabolic pathways and why is this
Free energy
100 This term refers to the degree of disorder or randomness. - entropy
200 What is the second law of thermodynamics? – energy transfers are
accompanied by an increase in entropy
300 What is the difference between catabolic and anabolic pathways – catabolic =
breakdown, anabolic = build up
400 Tell me six different things about spontaneous reactions – answers will vary
500 Identify what ∆H, T, ∆S, Gfinal, and Ginitial are.
Bonding and Chemical Reactions
100 This type of bond forms between an atom that has accepted an electron, and an
atom that has donated an electron – ionic bond
200 This type of bond occurs when atoms share electrons equally – nonpolar
300 How do enzymes effect the rate of reaction? Decrease activation energy
400 What can you tell me about a reaction with a +∆G? - endergonic
500 What is energy coupling?