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Prior Knowledge detailed Information
Students should be familiar with the following concepts, skills, and vocabulary:
1. What is pH?


the measure of acid
the measure of the ratio of hydrogen: hydroxide ions
2. What pH range includes acids, bases, and neutral solutions?
 acids < 7
 neutral = 7
 bases > 7
3. What does a change in one pH unit represent in terms of hydrogen ions?
 A 10x change (reviewed in PowerPoint)
4. Students should be familiar with reading pH values based on colors of pH paper
 Be able to compare the pH paper to the reference colors.
5. Students should be familiar with the following terms
 Concentration- the amount of something in a given volume
 Ions- atoms or compounds with a positive or negative charge
 Diffusion- movement of molecules from a high concentration and low
concentration
 Dissociation- the separation of a hydrogen without its electron creating a
hydrogen ion (in our example)
6. Students should have a working understanding of Google docs, spreadsheets, and
graphing
7. Students should have a working understanding of the scientific method, including
constructing different level hypotheses
8. Students should have a working understanding of writing a lab report, including
Introduction where the importance of the topic is introduced, the materials and methods
used, being sufficiently detailed so another student scientist could reproduce the
experiment
9. Anthropogenic
 resulting from human activity
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