Olive's Ocean Olive Barstow was dead. She'd been hit by a car on

• CHARACTER: A person or animal in a story.
who doesn’t change much during a
character who changes as a result of
the story’s events.
Exposition – introductory information about
characters, places, and/or events
Excerpt from Olive’s Ocean
Olive Barstow was dead. She’d been hit by a car on Monroe Street while riding
her bicycle. Weeks ago. That was about all Martha knew.
Comedy and tragedy
Comedy –
Tragedy –
is in a better
is worse off
situation at
at the end
the end of
of the story
the story
than in the
than in the
Conflict – a struggle between opposing
forces (characters, environment, self);
this is also referred to as the narrative
Internal conflict – struggle within a character’s mind.
External conflict – struggle between two characters or a character and his environment.
“The bees came the summer of 1964, the summer I
turned fourteen and my life went spinning off into a
whole new orbit, and I mean whole new orbit.
Looking back on it now, I want to say the bees were
sent to me. I want to say they showed up like the
angle Gabriel appearing to the Virgin Mary, setting
events in motion I could never have guessed. I know
it is presumptuous to compare my small life to hers,
but I have reason to believe she wouldn't mind; I will
get to that. Right now it's enough to say that despite
everything that happened that summer, I remain
tender toward the bees. “
Every Who
Down in Who-ville
Liked Christmas a lot...
But the Grinch,
Who lived just North of
Did NOT!
“…a figure of speech that makes a direct
comparison between two unlike things. A
metaphor suggests that one thing is another
thing, or is equal to another thing.”
Her home was a
All the world's a stage,
And all the men and women
merely players
They have their exits and their
The comparison of two unlike things using
like or as.
Cute as a kitten
Busy as a bee
Life is like a box of chocolates
• Central message in a work of
• Not just a topic, but what the
author wants you to take
away from the work (not
always, but often a lesson).
• Romeo & Juliet—Shallow,
Superficial Love Based on
Appearance OR Hate Breeds
Hate and/or Misery.
• Despicable Me—The Love of
A Family Can Overcome Pain
& Hurt
Figurative Language
There's a ball at the castle
And I've been invited
And I need to practice my dancing
Oh, please, Daddy, please?"
So I will dance with Cinderella
While she is here in my arms
'Cause I know something the prince
never knew
Oh, I will dance with Cinderella
I don't want to miss even one song
'Cause all too soon the clock will
strike midnight
And she'll be gone...
Language that has
abstract meanings
and usually
includes figures of
speech; NOT
Way in which story or narrative is told. Can be:
• First Person Point of View:
This is very simple. "I went to the store. Afterward, I drove home." You're writing
through the eyes of ONE person, and one person only. Nobody else gets to play.
• Third Person (Limited) Point of View: This is the most common form of story. You
get to see the thoughts/feelings of only 1 character, not ALL of them. “Robert felt
depressed and unhappy after his breakup with Helen. Despondent, he reached for
a 5 gallon bucket of GIANT Vanilla Marble Ice Cream.”
• Third Person (Omniscient) Point of View: In Third Omniscient, you‘re ALLKNOWING! You're telling an overview of the story through mechanisms that aren't
available in Third Limited. You know how ALL of the characters think and feel!
1st person
• I did. I think. I feel. I will….
– “My name is Robert Neville. I am a survivor living in New
York City. I am broadcasting on all AM frequencies. I will be
at the South Street Seaport everyday at mid-day, when the
sun is highest in the sky. If you are out there... if anyone is
out there... I can provide food, I can provide shelter, I can
provide security. If there's anybody out there... anybody...
please. You are not alone.”
The doorbell rang for the third time
before Robert could get there. He turned
the knob and felt his breath catch in his
throat. Helen looked radiant with the sun
behind her, setting her red hair on fire.
"What are you doing here? I thought you--" She looked contrite, but he couldn't
understand why. Her fingernails tapped
on her faded blue jeans.
"I wanted to see you." The words were
soft and sounded nearly embarrassed,
but he didn't care why. She was here and
oh, how he had missed her.
In Class Example
2 Characters who are opposites,
both psychologically and physically.
The Scarlet Ibis: The Narrator &
Doodle are foils.
Of Mice & Men: George & Lennie
are foils.