Poly – Many Mono-One Hydro-Water (actually Greek) Synthesis- to make or form Lysis-loosen; break apart Lipos - fat Life as we know it is carbon based. A carbon atom can form chemical bonds with other carbon atoms in long chains or rings. Carbon compounds in living things include: carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. City Cell Building Organelle Brick Macromolecule (polymer) mud monomer POLYMER MONOMER Carbohydrates (Polysaccharides) Lipids (e.g. fats) Protein Monosaccharides (simple sugars) Glycerol and Fatty Acids Amino Acids Nucleic Acids Nucleotides The chemical process of joining monomers to form polymers. At the end of each monomer is a (H) hydrogen atom and a (-OH) group. Every time a monomer is added a molecule of water is given off. The chemical breakdown of polymers into monomers through the addition of water; essentially the opposite of dehydration synthesis Carbohydrates are energyrich compounds made from carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Cells use carbohydrates to get and store energy. Carbohydrates are also called sugars or starches. Structure- ring-shaped molecule FUNCTION Quick and short term energy FOUND IN Breads, Pastas, Potatoes, Corn STUCTURE Contain Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen (CHO) Unique because they always have two hydrogen for every one oxygen (hydrate-like water H20) MONOSACCHARIDE EXAMPLES Glucose (C6H12O6) DISACCHARIDE EXAMPLES Lactose (milk sugar) Maltose (malt sugar-in grain), Sucrose (made of fructose & maltose combined-in sugar cane)-fruit (C12H22O11) 100 to 1000 monosaccharides joined POLYSACCHARIDE EXAMPLES Starch-how carbohydrates are stored in plants Glycogen-how carbohydrates are stored in animals Cellulose-found in plant cell walls; animals cannot digest (Fiber) Dehydration Synthesis Hydrolysis Lipids are made by cells to store energy for long periods of time. Lipids include fats, oils, and waxes. Can you think of examples of lipids in plants or animals? FUNCTION Long term energy storage Insulate against heat loss Protective cushion around organs FOUND IN Fatty foods, butter, margarine, cooking oils STUCTURE Contain Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen (on occasion other elements) Glycerol (backbone 3 Carbons with OH groups) and fatty acid tail/s Don’t dissolve in water FATS and OILS (Triglycerides) One glycerol with 3 fatty acid tail PHOSPHOLIPIDS WAXES STEROIDS Make up cell membranes contain C,H, O and phosphorus (2 fatty acid tails) Only 1 fatty acid tail with alcohol attached; protective coating on fruits etc. Includes cholesterol, female and male sex hormone GLYCEROL BACKBONE 3 FATTY ACID TAILS Dehydration Synthesis Hydrolysis Proteins are very large molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur. Protein molecules are made of smaller molecules called amino acids. FUNCTION Building blocks of living materials; compose structural parts such as keratin in hair and nails, antibodies, cartilage, bones, ligaments and enzymes (compounds that speed up reactions) FOUND IN Meat, Eggs and Cheese STUCTURE Much larger, more complex than carbohydrates and lipids . Contain Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen & Nitrogen. BUILDING BLOCKS Amino Acids (There are 20 different amino acids) Hold amino acids together (dipeptides, tripeptides, polypeptides) PEPTIDE BONDS DENATURATION When proteins are exposed to extreme changes in pH, temperature etc. they lose their shape and can no longer function. Dehydration Synthesis Hydrolysis Nucleic acids are compounds made of long, repeating chains called nucleotides. DNA is a nucleic acid that contains the information cells need to make all of their proteins. FUNCTION Important for growth & reproduction of cells, contains the genetic code (what genes are made from) FOUND IN Genes – 2 types DNA and RNA STUCTURE Sugar (deoxyribose or ribose), phosphate, nitrogen bases BUILDING BLOCKS Nucleotides ATP A nucleic acid that is made in the cell’s mitochondria. Glucose is converted into ATP. DNA is known for its twisted ladder shape SHAPE Some scientists refer to DNA as the “blueprints” for life. What is a blueprint and why might scientists use this “analogy”? WHAT DO YOU KNOW? NOTICE: C,H,O and the 2:1 ratio of H to O NOTICE: the twisted shape of DNA NOTICE: The Glycerol back bone and fatty acid tails NOTICE: The amino acid monomers CHROMOSOME NOTICE: The phospate, sugar and base NOTICE: The nitrogen and Rgroup MACROMOLECULE FOLDABLE Fold and cut a piece of paper as shown below to make 4 tabs. FRONT SIDE OF TABS: Tab A Label the tab PROTEIN in RED Write the name of its monomer and draw color one. TAB B Label the tab CARBOHYDRATE in BLUE Write the name of its monomer and draw color one TAB C Label the tab LIPID in GREEN Write the name of its monomer and draw color one TAB D Label the tab NUCLEIC ACID – a color not already used Write the name of its monomer and draw color one and and and and BACK SIDE OF TABS: TAB A Give 4 FUNCTIONS OF PROTEINS List 2 EXAMPLES OF PROTEINS TAB B Give 2 FUNCTIONS OF CARBOHYDRATES List 4 EXAMPLES OF CARBOHYDRATES TAB C Give 3 FUNCTIONS OF LIPIDS List 4 EXAMPLES OF LIPIDS TAB D Give 2 FUNCTIONS FOR NUCLEIC ACIDS List 2 EXAMPLES OF NUCLEIC ACIDS ON THE INSIDE CENTER SECTION, center and write the word MACROMOLECULE ON THE BACK OF THE FOLDABLE, write your NAME and PERIOD. Make a pocket for this to slide into in your notebook using paper. 95% of all compounds are organic Example: Glucose C6H12O6 Plant cells store energy as starch. Rice, potatoes, and wheat are plant starches.