Unit 3 Slot Notes

Unit 3 (part 1)- Cell Structure
Discovering Cells
First Observations of Cells
The invention of the ______________________made it possible for people to discover and
learn about cells.
Robert Hooke
One of the first people to observe cells was English scientist and inventor Robert Hooke who
built his own compound microscope and used it to look at thin slices of ______________.
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Leeuwenhoek was a businessman who liked to make microscopes in his spare time. He used
them to look at _____________
______________, and scrapings from his _____________.
He found many tiny moving organisms which he named ____________________.
Schleiden, Schwan, and Virchow
Inspired by the work of Hooke and Leuwenhoek other scientists began to use
microscopes to study cells. Over time, they developed the cell theory
The Cell Theory
1. All living things are composed of _______________.
2. Cells are the basic unit of ______________ and _______________ in
living things.
3. All ____________ are produced from other ______________.
CELLS are the basic unit of life. Every living thing is made up of one or more cells!
Common Features of ALL cells: (Prokaryotes AND Eukaryotes)
1. __________________________
2. __________________________
3. __________________________
4. __________________________
1. Always _________________ celled organisms
2. Do not have a _________________.
3. All have a cell wall.
4. DNA is in a single circular ring, or ____________ in the center of the cell.
1. Can be single or ______________________
2. Has a ____________ which houses the cell’s ______________.
3. Contains many smaller parts called _____________________ which each have a
certain job in the cell.
4. DNA is packaged into structures called _______________________.
Cells (smallest unit of life)
There are 5 Main Molecules That Make Up Cells
1. Water
Water is one of the most important __________________ in your body.
Water makes up about _________ of your body and plays many important roles in cells.
Because of the way the hydrogen and oxygen come together to make water, the
molecule has a ________________.
When something has a charge, it is called ___________. Water Is polar.
Anything that is polar will _________________ in water.
Anything non polar will ___________ dissolve in water
Things that dissolve in water are called _____________________.
Things that do not dissolve in water (repel water) are called ______________________.
2. Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are molecules made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. _____________
and starches are carbohydrates.
Carbohydrates store _____________.
3. Nucleic Acids
Nucleic acids are very long molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and
Nucleic acids store important _______________ for the cell.
There are two kinds of nucleic acids:
________ – Directs all of the cells activities
________ - Directions for making proteins.
4. Lipids
Lipids are made of carbon hydrogen and oxygen.
___________, oils, and waxes are all lipids, and
they do not mix with water.
Your cells use lipids to make _______________and store
_________________ .
5. Proteins
Proteins are one of the most important molecules in your cells. They aide in cell
___________________, form different cell parts, and perform many important
functions for the cell.
Proteins are made of long chains of carbon hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen.
Because of the complex way these chains ____________ up, a protein may have one
part that dissolves in _____________, while another part of the same protein does
not dissolve.
The Cell Membrane - A Phospholipid Bilayer
• The ______________________ protects the cell by controlling what can
enter and exit the cell. (keeps the insides in and the outside out)
• It is also called the ____________membrane.
• Cell membranes are made of a special type of lipid molecule called a
• The most important quality of phospholipids is that they have a
___________________ head and ___________________ tails.
Fluid Mosaic Model