Period 1 (Pre-history to 600 BCE)

Technological and Environmental
to 600 BCE
 Big Geography and the Peopling of the Earth
 Early human development occurred during the
Paleolithic Period
 Origins in Africa
 Hominids
 Anatomically modern humans (homo sapiens sapiens)
develop about 150,000 years ago
 Begin migrations
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Settlement of Australia: Approximately 60,000 BCE
Settlement of Eurasia: Approximately 50,000 BCE
Settlement of Americas: Approximately 14,000 BCE
 Hunting-foraging
 Nomadic
 Small groups based on bonds of kinship
 Relatively Egalitarian
 Adaptation to local environment
 Development of stone tools
 Use of fire for cooking, warmth, and deterring
 No written language
 Evidence of culture seen in cave paintings, artifacts,
and human remains
 Evidence of primitive, simple religion
 Lack of developed material culture
 Although groups were adapted to their specific
environment, hunter-foragers did interact with each
other and engage in exchange of ideas and goods
 The Neolithic Revolution and Early Agricultural Societies
 Neolithic: New Stone Age
 Began approx. 10,000 years ago
 Use of stone tools for agricultural production
 Most likely the result of climate change
 Domestication of plant and animal species
 See map on page 9 in textbook
 First began in the Eastern Mediterranean's%20Introduction%20to%20Anthropology.html
 Gradual process and dependent upon the geography
 Not all societies develop agriculture
 See map on page 9 of textbook.
 Agricultural centers emerged in:
 Mesopotamia, the Nile River Valley, Sub-Saharan Africa,
the Indus River Valley, the Yellow River, Papua New
Guinea, Mesoamerica, and the Andes
 Emerged in grasslands (steppes)
 Central Eurasia and parts of Africa
 Animal husbandry
 Mobile lifestyle
 Wealth measured in livestock
 Greater degree of complexity and cooperation
 More reliable food sources
 Population densities increase
 Permanent settlements
 Religion becomes more complex
 Some matrilineal, others patrilineal
 Trade developed between and among early agricultural
 Dramatic impact on the environment
 Erosion
 Clearing of forests for farmland
 Desertification
 Overgrazing of pastureland
 Increase in human population
 Increase in disease
 Craft specialization
 Social Stratification
 Patriarchy
 Technological
innovations were
developed to improve
agricultural production,
trade, and transportation
 Key examples:
 Pottery
 Plows
 Woven textiles
 Metallurgy
 Wheels and wheeled
The Development and Interactions of Early Agricultural,
Pastoral, and Urban Societies
 Core and foundational civilizations emerged in the
 Mesopotamia
 Egypt
 Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa
 Shang China
 Olmec
 Chavin
 Map quiz: Students will take a quiz to identify the core
and foundational civilizations.
Indus River Valley Civilization
The Yellow River Valley Civilization
Shang Dynasty
 State: a sovereign political entity which contains a
stable population, defined territory, and established
 Control over larger territory, population, and resources
 Divine Right
 Military
 Competition for land and resources
 Geography
 Bronze
 Iron
 Horses
 Chariots
 Composite bows
Architecture and Urban Planning
Arts and Artisanship
Systems of Record Keeping
Law Codes
 Polytheism: Belief in many gods
 Most common
 Vedic Religion becomes basis of Hinduism
 Monotheism: Belief in one god
 Hebrews
 Zoroastrianism (Persian Empire)
 Local, regional, and transregional trade
 Exchange of goods, cultural ideas, and technology
 Examples:
 Egypt and Nubia
 Mesopotamia and Indus River Valley
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Council of Europe

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