Assistance Lecturer Amjad Ahmed Jumaa IUPAC names of

Organic and biochemistry
 IUPAC names of carboxylic acids
 Reactions of the carboxylic acids
 Aldehydes and ketones
Assistance Lecturer Amjad Ahmed Jumaa
Nomenclature of the carboxylic acids:
1-Common names:
oAliphatic carboxylic acids:
The common names of the most important acids are coming from their
sources rather than to their chemical structure. And sometimes
depending upon the numbers of carbon atoms.
We see the branched-chain and substituted acids are named as
derivatives of the straight-chain acids. To indicate the position of the
attachment, the Greek letters, -α; -β; -γ; -δ, etc. is used. The α-carbon is
the one bearing the carboxyl group.
Look at the following examples:
Aromatic carboxylic acids, ArCOOH, are usually named as derivatives of the
Parent acid, benzoic acid, C6H5COOH. The methyl benzoic acids are given the
Special names of toluic acids. Look at the following examples.
Follow the usual pattern, the longest chain carrying the carboxyl group is
considered the parent structure, and is named by replacing the –e of the
corresponding alkane with –oic acid. For example.
Problem: for the following carboxylic acid give the common names and IUPAC
Ethanoic acid, acetic acid; (2-hydroxy-2-phenylethanoic acid), mandelic acid;
benzenecarboxylic acid, benzoic. (o-hydroxybenzenecarboxylic acid), salicylic
acid. (1, 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid), phthalic acid.
Follow problem: give the structure for the following carboxylic acids:
1-(α-bromo acetic acid)
2-(p-hydroxy acetic acid) 3-(p-toluic acid)
4-(m-chloro benzoic acid) 5-valeric acid.
Give the names for the following carboxylic acids :
1) m-NO2C6H4CO2H
2) p-ClC6H4COOH
3) p-MeC6H5CO2H
Reactions of carboxylic acids:
The characteristic chemical behavior, is determined by the functional
group, carboxyl, -COOH, this group is made up of a carbonyl group (C=O)
and a hydroxyl group (-OH). Actually (-OH) undergo loss of (H+) or
replacement by another group.
1-acidity. Salt formation.
Problem: write an ionic equation for the reaction of acetic acid with sodium
Follow problem: give an ionic equation for the reaction of:
1-(p-bromobenzioc acid). 2-(α-methyl butyric acid). With the following
inorganic bases:
1-sodium bromide. 2-sodium methoxide. 3-potassium tret-butoxide.
2-conversion into functional group.
Conversion into acid chloride
Problem: write a chemical equation for the reaction of m-methoxyphenylacetic
acid with thionyl chloride (SOCl2) under heat condition.
Follow problem: give an equation for the reaction of the following carboxylic acids
with phosphorus trichloride.
1-pentanoic acid. 2-(m-aminobenzoic acid) 3-(2-methylbutanoic acid)
Carbonyl compounds:
Aldehydes and ketones:
Aldehydes are compounds of the general formula RCHO; ketones are compounds
of the general formula RR'CO. The groups R and R' may be aliphatic or aromatic.
Both aldehydes and ketones contains the carbonyl group, C=O, and are often
referred to collectively as carbonyl compounds. It the carbonyl group that largely
determines the chemistry of aldehydes and ketones.