Ottoman PowerPoint

The Ottoman Empire
The Ottomans: 1299 - 1922
 Does anyone know the story behind how the
croissant pastry got its shape?
The Ottomans: 1299 - 1922
 During the Ottoman siege of
Vienna in 1638, Viennese
bakers discovered Turkish
soldiers trying to tunnel
beneath the walls. They
alerted the defenders of the
city, and the attempt was
foiled. The siege soon ended.
 To celebrate their victory over
the Turks, these bakers
created pastries in the shape
of the Turkish crescent, their
national symbol!
The Ottomans: 1299 - 1922
 Ottoman Empire founded by Osman I, who
ruled from 1280 to 1324.
 Osman I was a Ghazi.
 Ghazi: Islamic warriors who would conquer
lands for plunder, glory, and to spread Islam
 Ghazis took control of old Seljuk territories,
and expanded into Christian-held lands
The Ottomans
Osman I
and his
 Under their leader, Mehmet II,
the Ottomans besiege and
capture Constantinople.
 Constantinople is renamed
Istanbul, and becomes the new
capital of the Ottoman Empire.
 This is a serious blow, as well as
a threat, to Christian Europe.
 Ottomans were the first to use
large numbers of muskets and
cannons, which gave them
military and technological
Siege of Constantinople
 The Ottomans then begin to expand eastward into
Muslim-controlled territory
 Selim the Grim comes to power in 1512 after
murdering his father and brothers
 Selim was an effective Sultan and General
Sultan: title of Ottoman rulers
 Selim captures Arabia, Palestine, Persia, Syria, and
sections of Egypt.
 Captures the holy cities of Mecca and Medina
 Ottomans now control much of the territory of the
original Umayyad and Abbassid Caliphates
 Turkish Sultans would later take the title of caliph,
giving them religious authority
Ottoman Expansion
Suleyman the Magnificent
 Ottoman Empire
reaches its height
under Selim’s son,
 Suleiman rules for 46
years, from 1520 to
Suleyman the Magnificent
 His was sometimes called Suleiman the
Lawgiver or Suleiman the Magnificent.
 Suleiman was also a great general. His
armies conquered much of southern Europe
(The Balkans) and North Africa
 Expansion is finally stopped when he lays
siege to Vienna, but fails to capture it.
Siege of Vienna: 1525
Achievements of Suleiman
 Suleiman earns title of Lawgiver because he
simplified the laws of the empire.
 Promoted science and architecture
 His chief architect constructed many
beautiful schools, libraries, mosques, and
 Ottoman Empire under Suleiman had an
efficient civil service
Suleiman Mosque
Mostar Bridge
Civil Service and Social Structure
 Practice of taking Christian boys between
10-20 years of age, forcibly converting them
to Islam, and training them for positions in
a) military – “Men of the Sword”
b) civil service – “Men of the Pen”
Civil Service and Social Structure
 Christian slaves captured during warfare
who were trained as elite infantry in the
Ottoman military
 High-ranking advisor to the Sultan. Often
came from the devshirme system
Civil Service and Social Structure
 Provinces of the empire were allowed their
own local government.
 Non-Muslim communities were loyal to
sultan but were ruled by own religious
 Included Jews, Armenians, Orthodox
Strengths of Ottoman Empire
Strengths of Ottoman Empire
1. Control of Trade – controlled old Abbassid
trade routes
2. Wealth – control of trade + taxation of
provinces = great wealth
3. Military superiority – muskets, cannon,
elite infantry and cavalry (Janissaries)
4. Political stability through millet system
Ottoman-Safavid Rivalry
 Chief rival of the Ottoman Empire was the
Safavid Empire, located in present-day Iran
 Safavids were Shi’ite Muslims
 Fought with the Ottomans for religious
reasons, as well as control over
 Safavids tried to topple Ottoman Sultans
through palace intrigue
Ottoman-Safavid Rivalry
Decline of Ottomans
 Suleiman killed his oldest son Mustafa, who
would have been an able successor
 His vizier, Ibrahim Pasha, was also
assasinated by Suleiman’s wife
 His last son, Selim II, loses key battles to
 Selim allows bureaucracy to become corrupt
Decline of Ottomans
 During the reign of Selim, the empire begins
a slow, steady decline:
1. Europeans are able to sail around Africa,
bypassing old trade routes
2. Wealth from New World (gold and silver)
makes European powers rich
3. Industrial Revolution never takes place for
the Ottomans
Rise and Decline of Ottoman Empire
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