MP2 QUARTERLY EXAM STUDY GUIDE

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5.
4.
3.
2.
1.

Unicellular organisms are made up of
one cell. Multicellular organisms are two
or more cells and the cells are arranged
in the levels of organization (tissues,
organs, organ systems).
Cell
membrane
 Diffusion
– the movement of
particles from where they are
more concentrated to where they
are less concentrated; examples:
sugar, O2, salt
 Osmosis – the diffusion of water
 Particles
are in constant motion and
they want to move from high to low.
 Particles
are
constantly
moving to
create an
equal
concentration
of the solute on
both sides of
the cell
membrane.
Active transport: the movement of
molecules with energy from low
concentration to high concentration.
 Cells need active transport to keep a
concentration gradient and to move
large molecules.

 Molecular
transport: small molecules
& ions are carried across membranes
by proteins; example: Na+/K+ Pump
 Endocytosis: taking materials into the
cell by infoldings or pockets in the cell
membrane; example: phagocytosis &
pinocytosis
 Exocytosis: the release of large
amounts of material from the cell
HYPOTONIC: the concentration of water
side the cell is greater than inside the cell;
water moves in & the cell swells.
ISOTONIC: the concentration of water inside &
Outside the cell is equal
HYPERTONIC: the concentration of water
inside the cell is greater than outside the cell;
water moves out & the cell shrinks
 Autotroph:
organisms capable of
producing their own food;
example: plants
 Heterotroph: organisms
that can
not produce their own food;
example: humans
 Aerobic:
requires
oxygen; example:
cellular respiration
 Anaerobic:
without oxygen;
example:
fermentation
Photosynthesis
Cell Respiration
Organelle: chloroplast
 Occurs: plant cells only
 Chemical & Word formulas:

Organelle: mitochondrion
 Occurs: all eukaryotic cells
 Chemical & Word formulas:


ATP is adenosine triphosphate, it is the
energy molecule. Cells use it for things
like active transport.
X

Plants: convert light energy from the sun
into chemical energy. Plants use both
photosynthesis and cellular respiration to
create and use energy.

Humans: eat plants & other animals and
convert the energy in nutrients they
receive into energy (ATP). Humans (and
animals) eat their food and use cellular
respiration to release the energy in food.
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