BIOLOGY SEMESTER 1—Final Exam REVIEW NAME:__________________________ Chapter 3—The Biosphere: 1. Know what the study of ecology is: 2. Know what biotic and abiotic factors are as well as examples of each: 3. Know the difference between a producer (autotroph) and a consumer (heterotroph) and give examples. 4. What are the 6 different types of consumers? 5. What percent of energy is lost from one trophic level to the next? Where does it go? 6. Know the 3 matter cycles: Carbon, Nitrogen, & Phosphorus (*pg. 82-85) 7. Be able to answer questions using a food web or food chain. (*pg. 73-76) 8. Know the 6 levels of ecological organization in order, from smallest to largest: Chapter 4—Ecosystems and Communities: 1. Know what Limiting Factors are: 2. Know what Range of Tolerance is: 3. Know how limiting factors and range of tolerance determine what types of organisms live in an area. 4. Know the types of interactions between organisms: 5. Know the difference between a niche and a habitat. 6. What are the 2 different types of competition and what is the difference between them? 7. ‘What are the 3 types of biodiversity? 8. What is causing biodiversity of decline? 9. How is the greenhouse effect related to global warming? 10. What are the 2 Types of Succession: 11. What is the role of a Pioneer Species? What is an example of a Pioneer Species? Chapter 5—Populations: 1. Know the three ways in which population density are described: 2. Know the 4 factors that affect population growth. Know how the population is affected (either more  or less  people) when those 4 factors are increased as well as decreased. 3. Exponential growth occurs when resources are what? 4. Logistic growth occurs when resources are what? 5. What are the graphs for exponential and logistic growth. **See Biology book: Pg. 132-133 for Expo. (Figure 5-4), Pg. 134-135 (Figure 5-5) 6. What is carrying capacity? 7. Know the factors that limit the growth of populations: Each identified as either density dependent (D.D.) or density independent (D.I.). 8. Know that density-dependent factors become more relevant as our population grows. 9. What type of growth is the human population exhibiting? 10. How did Thomas Malthus think the human population would be limited? 11. 12. Compare and contrast r-selected strategists and k-selected strategists. Chapter 7: Cell Structure, Function, and Transport 1. Know the three parts of the cell theory: 1 2 3 2. Know the characteristics of life (including cells): (From: Chapter 2) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 3. Know the similarities and differences of prokaryotes and eukaryotes (venn diagram from our notes) 5. Know the cellular uses of macromolecules a.k.a. biological molecules (and examples). 6. Know the basic units (monomers) of 3 types of macromolecules a.k.a. biological molecules. 8. Know the function of enzymes and how they work. 13. Name 2 factors that affect enzymes. 14. Know the structure of the cell membrane: 11. Know the differences between Active Transport and Passive Transport and examples of each: Active Transport Passive Transport 12. Draw dot diagrams for the 3 types of solutions: Isotonic, Hypotonic, and Hypertonic. **Be sure to include arrows showing what direction the water will flow during osmosis. Isotonic: Hypotonic: Hypertonic: Chapter 8—Photosynthesis: 1. What is the equation for photosynthesis? a. In symbols: b. In words: 2. What organisms (living things) do photosynthesis? 3. What are the 2 parts of photosynthesis? And where do they occur? 4. Where do plants get the electrons (that they pass onto the electron transport chain) from during photolysis? Chapter 9—Cellular Respiration: 1. What is the equation for cellular respiration? a. In symbols: b. In words: 2. What organisms (living things) do cellular respiration? 3. What are the 3 stages of cellular respiration? How many ATP molecules are made in each stage? Be able to identify each reaction by its reactants and products. 4. When does fermentation (either lactic acid fermentation or alcohol fermentation) take place? 5. What is the job of ATP? 6. How is energy released from ATP? (Hint: What bonds break?) 7. Are more ATP molecules made with oxygen (aerobic respiration) or without oxygen (anaerobic)? 8. Know how photosynthesis and cellular respiration are related. Know the structure and function of the cell parts: CELL STRUCTURE FUNCTION Cell membrane Provides the cell with strength and support & protection for cell. Chloroplast “Empty,” fluid-filled portion of the cell that surrounds the organelles. Cytoskeleton Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Modifies, sorts, and packages proteins. Lysosome Converts chemical energy in food to a quickly usable form (ATP). Nucleus Produces proteins according to directions in DNA Vacuole Synthesize lipids and breakdown toxic substances.