Chapters 16-18 vocab

Vocabulary Chapter 16-18
DH 111
Islets of Langerhans: regions of the pancreas that contains its hormone producing cells
Fetal macrosomia: Big baby syndrome, primary risk factor is poorly controlled gestational
diabetes. Increased in maternal plasma glucose levels as well as insulin stimulated fetal growth.
Hyperbilirubinemia: when a newborn’s liver is not able to properly process the bilirubin causing
Bilirubin: produce in liver, produced when the liver breaks down red blood cells. A brownish
yellow substance in the bile that is excreted from the body in feces.
Microangiopathic: high blood glucose levels cause the lining of the blood vessels to take in
more glucose than normal. Walls of the vessels become thick but weak, they may bleed or leak
proteins and slow the flow of blood through the body
Gangrene: when a mass of body tissue dies (necrosis). Primary cause is reduced blood supple to
the affected tissue resulting in cell death
Lichen planus: disease that presents itself in the form of papules, lesions or rashes. In the
mouth it looks like white lacy streaks on the gingival, tongue, palate or lips
Candidiasis: thrush, fungal infection caused by yeasts
Adrenal glands: endocrine glands that sit at the top of the kidneys. Responsible for releasing
hormones in response to stress through the synthesis of cortisol and epinephrine and
norepinephrine and produce androgens. Adrenal glands affect kidney function through the
secretion of aldosterone
Endocrine glands: part of the endocrine system (system of glands, each secreting different
types of hormones directly into the bloodstreen) that secrete hormones directly into blood
rather than through a duct.
Medulla: part of the adrenal gland located at the center of the gland surrounded by the adrenal
cortex. Innermost part of the adrenal gland with cells that secrete epinephrine and
norephinephrine. Adrenal medulla increases energy, heart rate and metabolism.
Adrenal cortex: surrounds adrenal gland, mediates the stress response through production of
mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, including aldosterone and cortisol.
Cortisol: steroid hormone- glucocorticoid- releases when body is stressed and there is a low
level of blood glucocorticoids
Aldosterone: steroid hormone- produced by adrenal cortex, causes conservation of sodium
secretion of potassium, increased water retention, increased blood pressure.
Addison’s disease: endocrine disorder where the adrenal glands do not produce enough steroid
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH): also known as a corticotrophin. Produced in response to
stress. Effects- increased production and release of corticosteroids.
Atrophy: partial or complex wasting away of a part of the body. Can be caused by poor
nourishment, poor circulation, and loss of hormonal support.
Aguanulocytosis: severe and dangerous lowered white blood cell count, patient is at a high risk
for infection
Hepatitis: inflammation of the liver
Hypoparathyroidism: decreased function of parathyroid glands, leads to low calcium causing
Hypothermia: core body temperature drops below a level for normal metabolism for normal
body functions
Exophthalmoses: bulging of the eye out of the orbit
Macroglossia: unusual enlargement of the tongue
Ptosis: drooping of upper or lower eyelids
Periorbital edema: puffy eyes or swelling around the eyes