Ch. 11 What is Migration? Migration is the movement of people from one area to another- usually permanently. What Causes Migration? Push Factors Pull Factors An undesirable factor pushes people out of old Attractions that lure migrants to new location. Emigrate- move out /exit locations. Immigrate- move in Push Factors Oppression- authority mistreating a group of people. Poverty- lack of money or possessions (poor). Push Factors (con.) Political Conflicts- government policies, war, & denial of citizen rights make life unlivable. Environmental Factors- droughts, fires, floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, etc… Pull Factors Freedom- politically or religiously Economic Opportunity- jobs, education, living standard Pull Factors (con.) Cultural Ties- reinforce a part of one’s culture i.e. following family members who moved before. Political, Social, Economic, & Environmental Factors Types of Factors Political Factors Social Factors Economic Motives Environmental Factors Social Factors Types: Religious Persecution, Ethnic Persecution, Political Factors Types: Government Policies, Wars, Citizen Rights Economic Factors Type: Migration for better Economic Opportunities. Environmental Factors Types: Seasonal (follow crops or water), Environmental Disasters (floods, famine, earthquakes, etc…) Forced Migration Has historically been due to Political, Social, & Economic Factors. Historically underlying reasons have been: War Social Persecution (slavery, expulsions) Economic Exploitation (slavery, expulsion from lands Usual Migration Patterns People usually migrate through valleys and along H2O routes. Not through deserts, dense forests, or large mountain ranges. At least 10,000 yrs. ago humans migrated across a land bridge between Siberia & Alaska Hunters followed herds- spread thru N & S America= Natives only humans there till 1492 Europeans & their technology allow them to conquer most of N & S America. North America Before 1869 Transcontinental railroad built across U.S.to go from E to W coast (avoiding Appalachian & Rocky Mts- sailed around S. America (taking 3 months). Africa Sahara Desert was a barrier between North Africa and SubSaharan Africa. Societies in N. Africa & S.S. Africa developed differently, separate languages and customs. China Built the Great Wall to prevent tribes from Mongolia crossing into China. Currently People have migrated all over the world because of increase in technology especially airplanes.