Click here for American History, Chapter 28, Section 1

The Cold War
Describe the actions Allied forces took to
stabilize Germany and Japan after the war.
Discuss how the Allied Powers tried war
Explain why the United Nations was founded,
and relate how it was organized.
Trace the events that led to the founding of
the new country of Israel, and describe how
Arab countries responded.
Healing the Wounds of War,
Pages 832-837
Why might tensions have existed between the
United States and the Soviet Union after
World War II?
What problems might countries face as they
rebuilt after a war?
When war was over the governments of Japan
and Germany had collapsed.
July, 1945: Potsdam Conference was the first
time Harry S. Truman had met Winston
Churchill and Joseph Stalin. Clement Attlee
replaced Churchill since he had become the
new prime minister of Great Britain.
Germany would be divided into four
occupation zones.
Britain, France, & United States: took control
of the industrialized western part of
Soviet Union: controlled the poorer eastern
rural part of Germany.
The four powers: divided Austria into zones
and also agreed to work together to
administer the city of Berlin, which was in the
control part of Soviet occupation.
To stabilize Germany the Nazi Party was put
down. The powers would work together to reestablish local governments and rebuild German
At the Potsdam Conference the powers knew it
would take cooperation to oversee this
occupation. The Soviet Union was causing
tensions to rise over the occupation of most of
Eastern Europe.
Another concern was the demand from the
Soviets for reparations from Germany
Tensions were rising between the Soviets and the
United States at the Conference.
Scholar David McCullough summed up the
conference, “ The Potsdam Conference should have
been a time of celebration…..marking the start of a
new era of good feeling among the Allied powers now
that the common foe, the detested Nazi, was
destroyed…. But it wasn’t that way, nor in practicality
had there ever been much chance it would be…. The
first day they met, Stalin had told Truman he wanted
to cooperate with the United States in peace as in
war, but in peace, he said, that would be difficult. It
was what they all knew, and the underlying tension
felt at the beginning remained to the end.”
United States occupied Japan from 19451952.
United States was committed to rebuilding
Japans economy and ending militarism.
The U.S. wanted to establish a democratic
form of government in Japan.
Emperor Hirohito continued to live in the
imperial palace, with no power.
Supreme Commander Douglas MacArthur,
and a new Japanese congress were in charge
of the country.
Under MacArthur Japan adopted a new
constitution in 1947.
This constitution gave voting rights to women
and freedom of religion. Also, no navy or
army could exist.
Economics: 1. one program gave land to the
farmers; 2. allowed for organizing of unions;
and 3. broke up zaibatsu-huge family
corporations that had monopolized the
economy of Japan.
After the war the Allies had to come to some
compromise on how to punish those who committed
or had ordered atrocities during the war.
Nuremberg Trials: War crime trials in Germany took
place starting in November, 1945. Witnesses spoke of
surviving the concentration camps.
September, 1946: The court found four rulings
against the Nazis: a. planning the war, b. committing
war crimes, c. crimes against humanity, and d.
conspiring to commit the crimes.
Adolf Eichmann, established the Jewish extermination
program, he hid his identity and escaped to Latin
International Military Tribunal: In 1946 General
MacArthur setup the trials against war criminals
in the Pacific.
Hideki Tojo: Japan’s premier (general) was
sentenced to death.
Judges followed the rule of law and didn’t act out
of anger.
The outcome was that countries and individuals
can be held accountable for their actions during
war. The excuse of “just following orders,” wasn’t
going to work when it came to accountability.
The Allies met to discuss and establish a plan of
action for military strategies. They worked out a
postwar international organization known as the
United Nations.
In 1945 the UN Charter was established and voted
on by the US Senate. The UN headquarters is in
New York City. The Charter provided for a
General Assembly and Security Council.
Trygve Lie- First UN secretary general from Norway
Eleanor Roosevelt-served as one of the first
delegates from the U.S. to serve in the UN.
A. After WWII, European Jews settle in
B. UN create partition plan for Palestine.
C. British forces withdraw from Palestine.
D. State of Israel proclaimed.
E. 1949 UN plan divides Jerusalem.
Arab countries’ Response:
Reject UN plan
Refuse to recognize Israel; attack Israel
Zionism: movement seeking a Jewish
homeland in Palestine.
David Ben-Gurion: Zionist leader supported
the concept. Exiled to the US to raise money
for the Jewish community.
1948: Britain pulled out of Palestine and the
new state of Israel was established. The US
and the Soviet Union recognized Israel.
The Arab states of Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Syria,
and Transjordan attacked Israel.
The Israeli soldiers were outnumbered but had a
huge arsenal from the money raised from the
American Jewish Community.
The first UN mediator was assassinated in 1949
by Israeli extremists.
Ralph Bunche: second UN mediator, U.S. diplomat
persuaded both sides to sign an armistice.
The Plan: divided Jerusalem into Arab and Israeli
zones, Egypt given the Gaza Strip, and Jordan the
West Bank of the Jordan River.