The Cold War 1945-1960 Describe the actions Allied forces took to stabilize Germany and Japan after the war. Discuss how the Allied Powers tried war criminals. Explain why the United Nations was founded, and relate how it was organized. Trace the events that led to the founding of the new country of Israel, and describe how Arab countries responded. Healing the Wounds of War, Pages 832-837 Why might tensions have existed between the United States and the Soviet Union after World War II? What problems might countries face as they rebuilt after a war? When war was over the governments of Japan and Germany had collapsed. July, 1945: Potsdam Conference was the first time Harry S. Truman had met Winston Churchill and Joseph Stalin. Clement Attlee replaced Churchill since he had become the new prime minister of Great Britain. Germany would be divided into four occupation zones. Britain, France, & United States: took control of the industrialized western part of Germany. Soviet Union: controlled the poorer eastern rural part of Germany. The four powers: divided Austria into zones and also agreed to work together to administer the city of Berlin, which was in the control part of Soviet occupation. To stabilize Germany the Nazi Party was put down. The powers would work together to reestablish local governments and rebuild German industry. At the Potsdam Conference the powers knew it would take cooperation to oversee this occupation. The Soviet Union was causing tensions to rise over the occupation of most of Eastern Europe. Another concern was the demand from the Soviets for reparations from Germany immediately. Tensions were rising between the Soviets and the United States at the Conference. Scholar David McCullough summed up the conference, “ The Potsdam Conference should have been a time of celebration…..marking the start of a new era of good feeling among the Allied powers now that the common foe, the detested Nazi, was destroyed…. But it wasn’t that way, nor in practicality had there ever been much chance it would be…. The first day they met, Stalin had told Truman he wanted to cooperate with the United States in peace as in war, but in peace, he said, that would be difficult. It was what they all knew, and the underlying tension felt at the beginning remained to the end.” United States occupied Japan from 19451952. United States was committed to rebuilding Japans economy and ending militarism. The U.S. wanted to establish a democratic form of government in Japan. Emperor Hirohito continued to live in the imperial palace, with no power. Supreme Commander Douglas MacArthur, and a new Japanese congress were in charge of the country. Under MacArthur Japan adopted a new constitution in 1947. This constitution gave voting rights to women and freedom of religion. Also, no navy or army could exist. Economics: 1. one program gave land to the farmers; 2. allowed for organizing of unions; and 3. broke up zaibatsu-huge family corporations that had monopolized the economy of Japan. After the war the Allies had to come to some compromise on how to punish those who committed or had ordered atrocities during the war. Nuremberg Trials: War crime trials in Germany took place starting in November, 1945. Witnesses spoke of surviving the concentration camps. September, 1946: The court found four rulings against the Nazis: a. planning the war, b. committing war crimes, c. crimes against humanity, and d. conspiring to commit the crimes. Adolf Eichmann, established the Jewish extermination program, he hid his identity and escaped to Latin America. International Military Tribunal: In 1946 General MacArthur setup the trials against war criminals in the Pacific. Hideki Tojo: Japan’s premier (general) was sentenced to death. Judges followed the rule of law and didn’t act out of anger. The outcome was that countries and individuals can be held accountable for their actions during war. The excuse of “just following orders,” wasn’t going to work when it came to accountability. The Allies met to discuss and establish a plan of action for military strategies. They worked out a postwar international organization known as the United Nations. In 1945 the UN Charter was established and voted on by the US Senate. The UN headquarters is in New York City. The Charter provided for a General Assembly and Security Council. Trygve Lie- First UN secretary general from Norway Eleanor Roosevelt-served as one of the first delegates from the U.S. to serve in the UN. A. After WWII, European Jews settle in Palestine. B. UN create partition plan for Palestine. C. British forces withdraw from Palestine. D. State of Israel proclaimed. E. 1949 UN plan divides Jerusalem. Arab countries’ Response: Reject UN plan Refuse to recognize Israel; attack Israel Zionism: movement seeking a Jewish homeland in Palestine. David Ben-Gurion: Zionist leader supported the concept. Exiled to the US to raise money for the Jewish community. 1948: Britain pulled out of Palestine and the new state of Israel was established. The US and the Soviet Union recognized Israel. The Arab states of Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Syria, and Transjordan attacked Israel. The Israeli soldiers were outnumbered but had a huge arsenal from the money raised from the American Jewish Community. The first UN mediator was assassinated in 1949 by Israeli extremists. Ralph Bunche: second UN mediator, U.S. diplomat persuaded both sides to sign an armistice. The Plan: divided Jerusalem into Arab and Israeli zones, Egypt given the Gaza Strip, and Jordan the West Bank of the Jordan River.