Conflict in the Holy Land Notice of fair use of copyrighted materials Further use is prohibited The Mandate This conflict begins after WWI, when the Ottoman Empire lost control of the Middle East. The land was divided and European countries were given mandate, or control, of the region. The Holocaust Jewish immigration to the Middle East was steadily growing because of Zionism. After WWII and the uncovering of the Holocaust, the Zionist movement gained more support to create a Jewish homeland. The Partition In 1947, the United Nations announced a plan to divide Palestine into an Arab and Jewish state. Jews agreed, but Arabs vowed to do anything needed to prevent the U.N. plan from being carried out. The State of Israel The Jews were outnumbered in Palestine, but their armies were much more advanced because of involvement in WWII. Despite the bloodshed, the State of Israel was created on May 14, 1948. David Ben-Gurion: leader of Zionism movement and first prime minister of Israel Arab-Israeli War That night, a combined Arab force of Egyptians, Iraqis, Jordanians, Syrians, Lebanese, Saudi, and Yemeni troops attacked. The Arab-Israeli War or Israeli War for Independence lasted for 8 months, during which time the Jews not only defended their land, but expanded the territory to include most of the lands the Palestinians had been offered and rejected. The Refugee Camps The land Palestine lost was divided among their Arab neighbors, leaving Palestine with nothing. This created over 780,000 refugees who were displaced. Many of them left Israel, but some had nowhere to go and ended up in refugee camps along Arab borders. The situation in camps like these is a breeding ground for terrorism. Suez War Although Israel became a member of the United Nations, many Arab countries refused to recognize its existence. Skirmishes resulted, including the Suez War of 1956 between Israel and Egypt. Six Day War The Six Day War of 1967 was a sweeping victory for the Israelis. They overran the enemies, gaining control of the Sinai Peninsula and the City of Jerusalem, which is sacred to both Muslims and Jews. Munich Olympic Games 1972 Terrorist attacks were intended to avenge the victory, including the 1972 murders of 11 Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympic Games. Yom Kippur War - 1973 In 1973, Egypt and Syria carried out an attack on Israel during Yom Kippur, the holiest day in the Jewish calendar. This time, the Arabs were better prepared with weapons from the Soviet Union. The Israelis were able to hold off the Arabs, but the Yom Kippur War was an important step to the peace process. Camp David Accords President Jimmy Carter became involved in the peace process by arranging a meeting between Anwar Sadat of Egypt and Menachem Begin of Israel. They signed a treaty agreeing that Israel would return the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt in exchange for recognition of Israel as a country. The First Treaty Fails Despite the treaty, terrorism continued. Anwar Sadat was assassinated by Muslim extremists for agreeing to acknowledge Israel. Israel invaded Lebanon in 1982, in search of terrorists hiding out in the country. Intifada – “Uprising” In the 1980’s Palestinians began the Intifada, or war of sticks and stones. Israeli soldiers did not know how to react to the Palestinian civilians without looking like bullies. Death…A Part of Life? The 1990’s showed little improvement to the situation. Israeli extremists were responsible for the Hebron Massacre where 29 Palestinians were killed at a mosque. Another Jewish extremist, angered by peace efforts, assassinated Prime Minister Yitzak Rabin. Palestinian terrorism is also common. Suicide bombings by Palestinian groups attack both civilian and military targets. Is there still hope for peace in Israel?