Introduction

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EMT 251/4
INTRODUCTION TO
IC DESIGN
Mr. Muhammad Imran bin Ahmad
019-4267902
[email protected]
Profesor N.S. Murthy
1
Module Aims
Teaching Plan EMT251
2
Course Outcome


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CO1: Students will be able to design and simulate
logic circuits at transistor level using schematic entry
as well as netlists format.
CO2: Students will be able to produce the layout
design of a circuit based on the design rules
specified.
CO3: Students will be able to analyze CMOS
transistor characteristics.
CO4: Students will be able present their mini project
individually in a viva session.
3
Laboratory
(IC Design Lab, 9th Floor, KWSP)
Lab 1, Week2 : Netlist
Lab 2, Week3 : Schematic design
Lab 3, Week4 : Layout design
Lab 4, Week5 : DRC and LVS
Week6 – 13 : Mini Project
Week14
: Demo & Viva
4
CAD Tools
Mentor Graphics software (Linux OS):
 Text Editor
- Netlist
 Design Architect - Schematic
 IC Station
- Layout
 Xelga
- Simulation
 Calibre DRC
- DRC
 Calibre LVS
- LVS
5
Reading Lists
1)
Neil H.E. Weste and Daid Harris, CMOS VLSI Design- A Circuits
and Systems Perspective, Prentice Hall, 2005. Text Book
2)
Kang, Sung-Mo and Leblebici, Yusuf, CMOS Digital
Integrated Circuits- Analysis and Design, McGraw-Hill, 2005.
3)
Hodges, David A. et al, Analysis and Design of Digital
Integrated Circuits in Deep Submicron Technology, McGraw-Hill, 2004.
4)
Uyemura, J. P., Introduction to VLSI Circuits and Systems,
John Wiley, 2002.
5)
Rabaey, J. M. et al, Digital Integrated Circuits – A Design
Perspective, 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall, 2002.
6
Evaluation
Final Exam
– 50%
Course Work – 50%
Test 1 = 10 %
Test 2 = 10 %
Lab Test = 15 %
Mini project = 15 % (viva,demo,paper)
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EXPECTATIONS

Attend classes and labs.

Find out what you’ve missed if you’re absent.
Come earlier than the lecturer/engineers.
 Log on to portal regularly.
 Ask lecturer/engineers whenever have
any problems related with the subject.

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The First Computer
The Babbage
Difference Engine
(1832)
25,000 parts
cost: £17,470
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ENIAC - The first electronic computer
(1946)
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The Transistor Revolution
First transistor
Bell Labs, 1948
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The First Integrated Circuits
Bipolar logic
1960’s
ECL 3-input Gate
Motorola 1966
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Intel 4004 Micro-Processor
1971
1000 transistors
1 MHz operation
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Moore’s Law
In
1965, Gordon Moore noted that the
number of transistors on a chip doubled
every 18 to 24 months.
He
made a prediction that semiconductor
technology will double its effectiveness
every 18 months
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1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
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1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
LOG2 OF THE NUMBER OF
COMPONENTS PER INTEGRATED FUNCTION
Moore’s Law
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9
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4
3
2
1
0
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Transistor Counts
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Moore’s law in Microprocessors
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Die Size Growth
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Frequency
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Scaling….
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Technology shrinks by 0.7/generation
With every generation can integrate 2x more functions
per chip; chip cost does not increase significantly
Cost of a function decreases by 2x
But …
 How to design chips with more and more functions?
 Design engineering population does not double every
two years…
Hence, a need for more efficient design methods
 Exploit different levels of abstraction
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Design Abstraction Levels
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Design Metrics

How to evaluate performance of a digital
circuit (gate, block, …)?
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Cost
Reliability
Scalability
Speed (delay, operating frequency)
Power dissipation
Energy to perform a function
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Die
Single Die
Wafer
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WHAT IS IC?
IC Package
ICs on PCB
Wafer
Inside IC
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=
IC Layout
=
IC Schematic
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Why VLSI?
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Integration improves the design
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Lower parasitics = higher speed
Lower power consumption
Physically smaller
Integration reduces manufacturing cost (almost) no manual assembly
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