apgeounit1testbank key

1. A cognitive map(mental map) is
a. a map of exact differences between landmarks
b. made up of beliefs of what is in the environment
and where it is
c. any map without a projection
d. a map someone sketches to give another person
e. a map showing where people prefer to live
2. How the amount of generalization typically
change when map scale decreases(i.e., changes from
a larger scale to a smaller scale map?
a. that depends on whether it’s a reference map or
b. it decreases
c. it increases
d. it depends on the map scale
e. it does not change
6. To map the surface of the earth, geographers use
different projections because
a. no projection can show the entire earth on a
single map
b. no projection is ideal for the purpose of every
c. the appearance of the earth’s surface changes
with the seasons
d. some parts of the earth haven’t been surveyed
e. they don’t anymore; all maps are now produced
using the same projection
7. The above map of Illinois is an example of which
type of thematic map>
a. a cartogram
b. an image map
c. a chlorogram
d. an isoline map
e. a choropleth map
3. Given a topographic contour (isoline) map, which
pattern of contour lines would show the steepest
a. open areas with no contour lines
b. widely spaced contour lines
c. evenly spaced contour lines
d. closely spaced contour lines
e. you can’t tell slopes form contour lines, only
8. ________________ argue that cultural landscapes
should form the basic unit of geographic inquiry
a. Ptolemy
b. George Perkins Marsh
c. Eratosthenes
d. Carl Sauer
e. W. D. Pattison
4. On a Mercator projection map, where will you find
the landmasses most exaggerated in relative size?
a. near the poles
b. actually, land masses aren’t exaggerated on a
Mercator map
c. near the Prime Meridian
d. near the equator
e. near the major oceans
9. A thematic layer is
a. a method used in cartography to produce
mathematically accurate map projections
b. a map portraying a particular feature that is used
in a GIS
c. used in GPS systems to provide more accurate
navigational information
d. a map used by early explorers to find particular
resources in new regions of Earth
e. used as a method to analyze thematic regions
5. The map above of the distribution of the world’s
population is called
a. an image map
b. a chloropleth map
c. a projected map
d. an isoline map
e. a cartogram
10. Which of the following is the oldest field of
a. cultural ecology
b. conservation biology
c. cartography
d. environmental geography
e. physical geography
11. Geographic scale refers to
a. the ratio between distance on a map and distance
on earth’s surface
b. a conceptual hierarchy of spaces
c. a notion of place based on an individual’s
perception of space
d. the many ways the people define regions
e. the level of aggregation at which geographers
investigate a particular process
12. The ratio between distance on a map and
distance on Earth’s surface is called the
a. projection
b. resolution
c. scale
d. azimuth
e. aggregation
13. Cartography is the art and science of
a. demographics
b. mapmaking
c. spatial orientation
d. cognitive imagery
e. making visualizations
14. Map projections attempt to correct for errors in
a. transferability
b. area, distance, scale, and proportion
c. area, distance, shape, and direction
d. distance, proximity, and topology
e. distance, shape, and lines of latitude and
15. The Mercator projections preserve
a. direction
b. area
c. shape
d. scale
e. distance
16. Topographic maps use which of the following
symbols to convey change over space?
a. tonal shadings
b. Isolines
c. proportional sysmbols
d. location charts
e. cartograms
17. Which of the following map projections
preserves the correct shape of Earth’s landmasses?
a. Fuller’s dymaxion
b. Mercator
c. Robinson
d. Molleweide
e. Smithsonian
18. The size of a map’s smallest discernable unit is its
a. scale
b. density
c. region
d. resolution
e. projection
19. The word "geography" literally means
a. the study of space
b. Earth study
c. people and nature
d. Earth writing
e. human ground
20. Which of the following projections places the
North or South Pole at teh center of the view?
a. azimuthal
b. choropleth
c. pole view
d. Fuller's
e. Mercator
21. Cartography is the art and science of
a. demographics
b. map-making
c. spatial orientation
d. cognitive imagery
e. spatial decision making
22. Geographic research that applies only to one
place or region is
a. nomothetic
b. denominational
c. idiographic
d. nonscientific
e. cultural studies
23. Cartographic scale refers to
a. the size of an object in the real world
b. the number of different objects depicted on the
c. the projection
d. the relation between a distance on a map and
distance on the ground
e. angular distance from the equator
24. The National Geographic Society uses the
Robinson projection for many of its maps because
a. it is the only perfectly proportioned projection
b. it fits in the pages
c. it is versatile and aesthetically pleasing
d. it orients the United States in the center of the
e. it sells at newsstands
25. Geographic information systems use
______________ to display multiple spatial data sets
a. thematic layers
b. cartograms
c. remotely sensed images
d. dot maps
e. isolines
26. The ratio between distance on a map and
distance on the earth' surface is called the
a. prjection
b. resolution
c. scale
d. isoline
e. proruption
27. Taking photos of Earth from space is also called
aerial photography
satellite imagery
geographic information systems
geographic positioning systems
remote photography
28. Who first coined the term geography
Zheng He
29. The linking of places by common traits or
characteristics is defined as
30. Which type of map would have the largest scale?
a. world map
b. continent map
c. country map
d. regional map
e. city map
31.The azimuthal map best reflects what class of
map projection?
a. conic
b. cylindrical
c. oval
d. planar
e. Mercator
32. 1:100,000 is an example of what type of scale?
a. word
b. line statement
c. fractional
d. small scale
e. large scale
33. Looking at an issue such as total fertility rate
from a local to global perspective in geography
would be an example of using
a. map scale
b. differentiated analysis
c. scale of analysis
d. continuous synthesis
e. regional analysis
34. What are maps called that keep shapes intact
but distort area?
a. conformal
b. equal area
c. azimuthal map
d. molleweide
e. relative
35. What is the difference between GPS and GIS?
a. GPS uses GIS data
b. GIS uses GPS data to determine location
c. GPS is the layering of data, whereas GIS is the
gathering of data
d. GIS is the layering of data, whereas GPS is the
gathering of data
e. GPS correlates with GIS, but GIS does not
correlate with GPS.
36. The relationship between an object on the
surface of the Earth and the same object on a map
projection is known as what?
a. map class
b. map projection
c. map scale
d. map distortion
e. map direction
37. The delivery area of the Pittsburgh Gazette is an
example of what type of region?
a. functional region
b. formal region
c. vernacular region
d. statistical region
e. urban realm
38. A polar projection showing true distance in one
direction is an example of which type of map?
a. molleweide
b. Mercator
c. Goodes-Homsoline
d. Azimuthal
e. Robinson
39. The concept of “place” in human geography can
best be defined as
a. a location of the Earth’s surface with a distinctive
b. a point formed by the intersection of tow or more
transportation lines
c. a point where a natural resource is located
d. a sub-unit of a region composed of villages or
small towns
e. a location where people live and work
40. The concept of scale, in terms of the
geographical analysis of population, would be
divided upon levels such as
a. private, business,government
b. 1:24,000, 1:1,000,000, 1:6,000,000
c. census tract, city, country
d. male, female, dependents
e. gender,age, ethnicity
41. Which of the following examples would best
represent the concept of map scale?
a. private land, commercial land, government land
b. 1:24,000, 1:1,000,000, 1:6,000,000
c. census tract, city limits, county boundaries
d. Washington, New York, Springfield
e. line coloration from blue to green and then to red
42. The concept of “space” in human geography can
be defined as
a. areas of the earth’s surface bounded by objects,
real and imagined
b. a point on the earth’s surface with a meaningful
c. areas outside of planetary atmospheres
d. the amount of human population that can be
supported by the resources in the area
e. an area with a common homogeneous
43. All of the following are tools that the bank (or its
geographic team) most likely used to create and
display this layered map of geographic data EXCEPT
(A) GPS (D) desalination
(B) GIS (E) satellite imagery
(C) remote sensing
44. On which of the following map projections is
direction true everywhere on the map?
(A) Mollweide (D) Robinson
(B) Mercator (E) Miller cylindrical
(C) Peter
45. Human geography is defined as the study of
a. human interactions with the physical environment
b. human interactions with the cultural environment
c. human interactions with the physical and cultural
d. human interactions within the natural landscape
e. human interactions within the physical landscape
46. The map created by Lewis and Clark could be
called a
a. thematic map
b. choropleth map
c. graduated circle map
d. general purpose map
e. topographic map
47. IF you wanted to see the location of the city
building in Seattle, Washington, you would need a
a. large-scale map
b. small-scale map
c. topographic map
d. graduated circle map
e. choropleth map
48. Human geography is the study of
a. the physical processes of the Earth
b. who lives where, how they live, and why the live
c. the psychology of the human race minus
environmental influences
d. the culture of the human race minus
environmental influences
e. how humans evolved through time
49. Of these, the map using the smallest map scale
would be the map of
a. the world
b. Atlanta, Georgia
c. Main Street, Small Town Ohio
d. Pennsylvania
e. South America
50. Which of the following is NOT used by
geographersto determine absolute location
a. longitude
b. latitude
c. equator
d. Prime Meridian
e. distance to the nearest city
51. Regions share all of these characteristics EXCEPT
a. boundaries
b. common features
c. relative location
d. easily defined
e. spatial extent
52. The latitude and longitude coordinates of a place
are an example of a place are an example of
a. a formal region
b. a functional region
c. an absolute region
d. a relative location
e. a perceptual region
53. Which of the following items below is an
absolute location
a. 10 miles east of Pittsburgh
b. Washington
c. 3 degrees north
d. 479 Elm Street, Muncie, Indiana
e. Prime Meridian
54. The distance north and south of the equator is
a. global grid system
b. Prime Meridian
c. latitude
d. longitude
e. scale
55. The Earth’ s surface as modified by humans is
a. folk culture
b. carrying capacity
c. environmental determinism
d. the cultural landscape
e. the physical environment
56. Which one of the following is an example of a
formal region?
a. The US Corn Belt
b. Northwest Airlines
c. Dixie
d. Retailing region of Chicago
e. The Midwest
57. The latitude and longitude coordinates of a place
refer to its
a. absolute location
b. relative location
c. distance
d. situation
e. scale
58. Chinatown is an example of a
a. functional region
b. nodal region
c. perceptual region
d. formal region
e. uniform region
59. At what degree of latitude is the North Pole?
a. 0 degrees north
b. 0 degrees south
c. 45 degrees north
d. 90 degrees north
e. 90 degrees south
60. Which term refers to the physical character of a
a. situation
b. site
c. relative location
d. absolute location
e. place
61. What is another name for a meridian?
a. parallel
b. longitude
c. latitude
d. poles (North and South)
e. equator
62. Newspaper delivery areas are an example of
which type of region?
63. What geographical feature usually distinguishes
time zones?
5 degrees of latitiude
5 degrees of longitude
15 degrees of latitude
15 degrees of longitude
30 degrees of longitude
64. The prime meridian is what degree of longitude
0 degrees
45 degrees
90 degrees
120 degrees
180 degrees
64. Environmental determinism was replaced by
which approach to geography in the late 20 century?
a. distribution approach
b. hierarchial approach
c. stimulus approach
d. vernacular approach
e. possibilist approach
65. What type of map has all lines of latitude and
longitude meeting at right angles, creating much
distortion at both of the polar regions
Mercator projection
Robinson projection
Molleweide projection
Azimuthal projection
Goodes-Homsoline projection
66. The concepts of the South means many things to
many people, and many people draw the South
using different boundaries. This is an example of a(n)
a. formal region
b. functional region
c. industrial region
d. agricultural region
e. vernacular/perceptual region
67. The Prime Meridian is
a. located in Greenwich, Connecticut
b. 0 degrees longitude
c. a meridian that cannot be divided by a whole
d. 23 degrees 30 minutes N latitude
e. 180 degrees longitudes
68. London has become a world city in part because
of its proximity to ports and other places that foster
development. This reason for London’s historic
growth relates to the city’s
(A) site
(D) situation
(B) sovereignty
(E) distance decay
(C) redlining
69. The region outlined above contains delivery
destinations served by United Trucking. Which of the
classifications best fits this region?
(A) Functional (D) Mental
(B) Formal (E) Perceptual
(C) Vernacular
70. A banking company wanted to open a new
branch in the New York City area. In order to study
the region, the bank
used a map to analyze potential locations. The map
the bank’s leadership used in its decision-making
showed a layer of regional data displaying per capita
income; another layer displaying the frequency of
deposits made; and another layer showing the
average value of the deposited amount. With this
map, the banking
company was able to choose the optimum location
for its new branch.
75. Maps like the one shown here are referred to as
a. perceptual regions
b. false maps
c. nodes
d. cognitive maps
e. functional regions
71. Longitiude is
a. the angular distance north or south of the prime
b. the angular distance east or west of Greenwich,
c. the angular distance north or south of the equator
d. useful in determining relative location
e. useful in describing a place's situation
77. A cognitive map tell us
a. the absolution location of features in the
b. everything that someone knows about the place
they live
c. the precise location of the most important
d. which projection to use
e. what someone believes and thinks is important
about a place
72. ___________ maps work well for locating and
navigating between places, while ___________ maps
display one or more variables across a specific space
a. reference.... thematic
b. thematic.....reference
c. spatial ..... cartographic
d. cartographic..... spatial
e. topologic..... choropeth
73. Latitude is
a. the angular distance north or south of the prime
b. the angular distance east or west of Greenwich,
c. the angular distance north or south of the
d. useful in determining relative location
e. a measure of social or political freedom
74. All choropleth maps use
a. shading and coloring
b. isolines
c. dots
d. graphs and charts
e. the Mercator projection
76. Isolines are common on which of the following?
a. globes
b. atlases
c. cartograms
d. topographical maps
e. dot maps
78. If a geographer performs a study on people’s
perceptions of the Deep South using interviews as
the primary data source, the geographer’s method is
a. quantitative
b. systematic
c. anthropogenic
d. qualitative
e. idiographic
79. Which of the following is true concerning
a. they are strict functional units
b. they are usually defined by a standard
mathematical formula
c. they are figments of the imagination
d. they are conceptual units
e. they all have well-defined boundaries
80. Seattle is located on Puget Sound in
Northwestern Washington. It has a large university,
a famous downtown market, and a moist, marine
climate. Seattle’s primary economic activities include
ship and aircraft construction and high-technology
enterprises. This information gives us a description
of Seattle’s
a. situation
b. cognitive image
c. site
d. landscape
e. relative distance
87. Cultural landscape can be defined as
a. the types of art, music, dance, and theater
practiced in a particular way
b. the ways that people in differing cultures perceive
the environment
c. the forms superimposed on the physical
environment by the activities of humans
d. the diversity of distinctive cultures within a
particular geographic area
e. a particular area within a geographic region
dedicated to cultural activities
81. Liines of longitiude
a. never meet
b. begin at the equator
c. are referred to as parallels
d. interect at the poles
e. contain the two tropics
82. Unlike administrative regions, perpetual(or
cognitive) regions
a. have vague boundaries
b. come in many different sizes
c. are never hierarchically organized
d. do not have location
e. do not have boundaries
84. Which is a good example of a functional region?
a. the Bible Belt states
b. the area served by a local bus line
c. the state of California
d. an individual’s perception of his/her daily activity
e. an area where one dominant language prevails
85. Regionalization is to geography as
a. composition is to music
b. description is to literature
c. exploration is to geology
d. periodization is to history
e. characterization is to drama
86. According to the theory of environmental
determinism, which of the following areas would
have the most productive settlements?
a. tropical regions
b. temperate regions
c. mountainous regions
d. artic regions
e. arid regions
88. The Christian religion in South America first
spread by
a. stimulus diffusion
b. relocation diffusion
c. contagious diffusion
d. hierarchial diffusion
e. force
89. A fad is started by a television personality of
wearing shorts with a shirt and tie. The trend
spreads throughout the United States. That is an
example of what type of diffusion?
a. expansion
b. contagious
c. stimulus
d. relocation
e. hierarchical
90. The fact that there is more interaction and
movement between Washington D. C. and
Baltimore than there is between Washington, D.C.
and Philadelphia is a function of
a. distance decay
b. the gravity model
c. spatial interaction
d. cultural ecology
e. distribution
91. A decrease in trade or interaction between
different places as the distance between places
increases is defined as
a. elasticity
b. friction of distance
c. distance decay
d. segregation
e. terminal costs
92. In 1492, Christopher Columbus’s voyage took
nearly 40 days to cross the Atlantic Ocean, a trip that
would take a
modern ship less than one week. This difference best
reflects the geographic concept of
(A) distance decay (D) space-time compression
(B) uneven development (E) distribution
(C) stimulus diffusion
93. Two unrelated people are trying to decide
whether to travel to Houston, Texas, from their
homes in Germany for a
special vacation package offered on television. One
German decides Houston is too far away, while the
other decides
to purchase the vacation package. This scenario best
demonstrates the effects of
(A) brain drain (D) doubling time
(B) concentration (E) expansion diffusion
(C) cognitive distance
94. In distance decay models, the slope of the decay
function illustrates
a. the type of interaction
b. the nature of the network
c. the influence of "friction of distance"
d. topography
e. net dispersion
95. In the following distance decay function
a. the friction of distance has little effect on
b. connectivity is related to the position of a central
c. distance imposes a significant barrier to spatial
d. topological space acts independently of distance
e. absolute decay is different that relative decay
96. In the gravity model of spatial interaction,
population and distance
a. are inversely related
b. are directly related
c. each have multiple measures
d. do not affect the final solution
97. Which of the following could qualify as a barrier
to spatial diffusion
a. an ocean
b. a freeway
c. a river
d. an affluent neighborhood
e. all of the above
98. The degree of connectedness between places is
referred to as
a. isoline scale
b. topological space
c. diffusion potential
d. deep space
e. topographic space
99. According to the gravity model, distance may not
greatly affect level of interaction if
a. populations are extremely large
b. populations are extremely small
c. distancec is extremely large
d. both B and C
e. none of the above
100. A model is useful in that it
a. conveys the whole truth about a phenomenon
b. eliminates the complexity associated with the
c. provides a comprehesible and limited view of a
d. relies completely on empirical data for
confirmation or refutation
101. A perceptual region’s boundaries are
a. determined by a set of uniform physical or cultural
characteristics across a particular area
b. drawn around the function that occur between a
particular place and the surrounding area
c. determined by the portion of a particular area that
has been modified by human activities
d. fuzzy because they allow for individual
e. designated by the inclusion of a particular cultural
102. Even though some cities are far apart in terms
of absolute distance, they are actually quite
concerned economically and socially. This is
representative of
a. topographic space
b. cognitive space
c. topological space
d. relative location
e. situation
107. Store and restaurants in Oregon that find it
cheaper to buy fresh vegetables grown in Claifornia
that those grown in California than those grown in
Florida are taking advantage of
a. expansion diffusion
b. distance decay
c. economies of scale
d. intervening opportunities
e. retail gravitation
103. Which of the following is a true statement
regarding time-space convergence?
a. places seem to all look the same
b. places seem to be getting closer together
c. places are increasingly concentrated on
maintaining their histories
d. places are making more of an effort to converge
activities to save time
e. places are implementing more rapid forms of
108. According to the gravity model, which tow
places are most likely to have a high level of
a. two cities with very large populations but
separated by the Atlantic Ocean like New York and
b. two cities with medium populations separated by
a whole continents like Grand Rapids, Michigan, and
Gulf Shores, Alabama
c. two cities with small populations that are
relatively close together like Richmond, Virginia and
Winchester, Kentucky
d. two cities, one with a that are large population
and the other with a medium population that are
very close in distance like Seattle and Tacoma,
e. two cities with medium populations that are
relatively close to each like Akron, Ohio and
Springfield, Missouri
104. Which of the following is NOT a measure of
relative distance?
a. 2,339 centimeters
b. 35 seconds
c. tow dollars and fifty cents
d. 216 footsteps
e. 15 minutes
105. Tobler’s first law of geography states,
“Everything is related to everything else, but
a. distant things are generally unrelated
b. near things are more closely related than you
might think
c. distance is always a factor
d. near things are more related than distant things
e. distance is relative
106. Rap music fist appeared in New York in the
1970s. Later it spread to large cities with vibrant
African-American populations- such as Los Angeles ,
Oakland, Chicago, Philadelphia, and Detroit-without
being absorbed by the smaller cities and rural areas
in between. This type of spatial diffusion is called
a. relocation potential
b. hierarchial diffusion
c. contagios diffusion
d. cultural diffusion
e. cascade diffusion
109. Which of the following is NOT a good example
of a barrier to spatial diffusion?
a. a mountain range
b. a different language
c. a different dietary preference
d. a highway system
e. a strict religious system
110. What is most responsible for “hierarchical”
diffusion as opposed to “contagious” diffusion?
a. distance decay effects
b. special network links between major nodes
c. some people need multiple contacts before they
adopt an innovation
d. proximity of the innovation to the major nodes of
e. relevance of particular innovations to only specific
111. Which of the following processes can explain
how a new idea or product comes to appear in a
a. expansion diffusion
b. innovation
c. relocation diffusion
d. contagious diffusion
e. distance decay
112. The term “cultural diffusion” refers to the
a. modification of Earth’s surface by human actions
b. integration of behavioral traits within a group
c. spread of an idea or innovation from its source
d. relationship between human cultures and their
physical environment
e. assimilation of a minority culture into the host
What geographical approach suggests that humans
possess the ability to dominate their environment
rather than that they are defined by the
Animistic approach
temperate approach
environmental determinist approach
socioecology approach
possibilist approach
What is the term for the phenomenon that the
farther a feature moves from a hearth, the less
dominant it is?
central place
concentric circle
regional analysis
distance decay
sequence occupance
IF an area has objects in it that are tightly arranged,
it is said to be what?
The study of the interaction between human
cultures and natural ecosystems is called
a. cultural ecology
b. semiotics
c. cognitive science
d. linguistics
e. sociobiology
The nomothetic view of geography suggests that
a. universal laws guide all spatial patterns in the
b. similiarities between places can be explained
using universal laws
c. individual place can be sufficiently explained with
d. individual places are unique
e. all spatial scales can be modeled equally well
Human induced environmental change is often
referred to as
a. anthropomorphic
b. anthropocentric
c. anthropogenic
d. unsustainable
e. environmental determinism
Conserving resources to ensure enough for future
generations is called
a. subsistence agriculture
b. sustainablility
c. cultural ecology
d. environmental determinism
e. the organic movement
_________________ refers to concepts that are
universally applicable
a. nomothetic
b. qualitative
c. idiographic
d. idiocentric
e. quantitative