Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 10-11 Study Guide 1. The matrix of blood is called __________________. 2. What is hematocrit? 3. Of the formed elements, which is the most abundant in blood? 4. What is polycythemia? What two factors can cause polycythemia? 5. Compare/contrast Erythrocytes (red blood cells) and leukocytes (white blood cells). 6. Leukocytosis is most often attributed to the presence of a(n) _________________________. 7. ____________________ produce histamine during the inflammatory response. 8. The most numerous of the white blood cells are the ______________________. 9. What is the name for blood cell formation? Where in the body does it take place? What is the average life span for a single blood cell? What is the normal pH level for blood? 10. What is erythropoietin? What organ releases erythropoietin? Why is it released in the body (hint: in response to what factor is it released). 11. The series of reactions that stop blood flow following a cut is called ___________________. 12. What is a thrombus? What is an embolus? 13. What are the different blood types? Which type is the most common in the U.S.? 14. Describe the orientation of the heart in the body. Which direction does the base point? Which direction does the apex point? 15. What are the four heart valves? Where in the heart are they located? What is another name for the right AV valve? What is another name for the left AV valve? 16. The structure that divides the right and left ventricles is called the ____________________. 17. What is the intrinsic conduction system? What are the five parts? Where is each part located within the heart? What is the correct pathway of electrical flow through this system? 18. Chest pain resulting from the loss of oxygen to the heart is called ____________________. 19. What are arteries? What are veins? How do they differ in the direction they carry blood? What are capillaries? 20. The friction blood encounters as it flows through the vessels is called ___________________________. 21. Describe the path of a drop of blood, starting at the right atrium and ending in the aorta. Identify the chambers, valves, and vessels that the drop of blood travels through. You may draw a diagram and label the pathway if you prefer.