CH 3.1 England and Its Colonies MAIN IDEA England and its largely selfgoverning colonies prosper under a mutually beneficial trade relationship. WHY IT MATTERS NOW English governing traditions influence Americans sense of self rule. English Political Traditions • Magna Carta, 1215. -Can’t seize property. -Elect representatives. -Taxed only with representation. -Trail by jury. • Parliament , representative body. -House of Commons. -House of Lords. Mercantilism • Settlers export raw materials; import manufactured goods. • Countries must get gold, silver to be self-sufficient. • Favorable balance of trade means more gold coming in than going out. The Navigation Acts • Parliament- England’s legislative body. -colonial sales to other countries are an economic threat. • 1651, pass acts to restrict colonial trade. Crackdown in Massachusetts • Colonists resent the acts and smuggle goods. • 1684 King Charles revokes charter; creates royal colony. The Dominion of New England • King James creates in 1685. -all the land from Maine to New Jersey into one colony. -obedient under single ruler. • Sir Edmund Andros, governor. -antagonizes Puritans and merchants The Glorious Revolution • King is unpopular -Catholic, disrespects Parliament. • Parliament asserts power over monarch, 1689. -crown Mary and William of Orange. • Creates English Bill of Rights In New England • Mass. colonists arrest Gov. Andros and royal councilors. • Parliament restores charters. • 1691, Mass. has royal gov., religious toleration. Salutary Neglect • Understanding between England and colonies. -left alone if loyal economically. • Smuggling trails with English judges, no juries. • Board of Trade monitors colonial trade. Seeds of Self-Government • Gov: calls, disbands assembly; appoints judges; oversees trade. • Assembly influences Gov. because they pay his salary. • Colonists consider themselves British, but want self-rule. Zenger Trial, 1735 • Printed article that criticized Gov. of New York. • Charged with libel. • Used “truth” as defense. • Beginning of Amer. Freedom of Press.