Atoms & Ions Lab #1 Activity 1 Objectives: Student will review some of the chemical elements by building models of atoms Student will review basic chemistry vocabulary and concepts by modeling changes in proton, neutron and electron numbers Procedures 1) Sort candy by color and place into paper cups, bowls, or baggies. Each student should pick three colors and have about 20 of each color. 2) Define and record in lab book, the color you will use to represent neutrons, protons, and electrons. 3) Using periodic table as reference, make one helium atom. Draw this atom in your notebook, using the same colors as your candy. 4) Answer the following questions in your notebook: What would happen if we did the following: a. Changed the number of protons? b. Changed the number of electrons? c. Changed the number of neutrons? 5) Make each of the changes to your model and take notes on how the atom is affected by each change. 6) Build the following atoms and draw AND label in your notebook: a. Carbon b. Nitrogen c. Oxygen d. Fluorine Questions 1) How many electrons fit in each orbital? 2) How does the proton number compare to the electron number? 3) How do you think the number of electrons on the outer orbital of each atom relates to how stable the element is? 4) Which of the elements are the most stable? 5) Which elements are the most reactive? Activity 2 Objectives: Review basic chemistry vocabulary and concepts by making models of ionic bonding. Procedures 1) Build a fluorine and hydrogen atom 2) Move an electron from hydrogen to fluorine to form two more stable atoms (ions). 3) Answer: How and why do these atoms form an ionic bond? Draw a before and after picture in your lab notebook. 4) Build the following molecules and draw before and after pictures in your lab notebook: a. LiCl b. MgO c. Bes Questions 1) In each of the molecules built, which atom has become the cation and which the anion? 2) Which elements of the periodic table tend to become negative ions (have the greatest potential for acquiring electrons)? 3) Which elements of the periodic table tend to be positive ions (have the weakest ability to retain/keep their electrons)? 4) Which columns would combine well, in order for both to be more stable? 5) Which elements on the periodic table tend to make ionic bonds? 6) Electronegativity is an atoms ability to attract another atom’s electrons. Based on that information, how does electronegativity relate to ionic bonding? 7) Why don’t all elements of the periodic table form ionic bonds? 8) What do atoms that cannot form ionic bonds do to become more stable?