NOTES: The Chemistry of Life.

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Unit 1: CELLS- Understanding the organization and
building blocks of life
NOTES: The Chemistry of Life.
 The Levels of Organization in Living Things
Before we can study biology, we need to understand “what” living things are made of.
An essential part of that is knowing how all living things are made-up.
All living things demonstrate a similar pattern of organization that we refer to as the “Levels of
Organization”.
 Levels of Organization
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
 All living cells carry on many complicated cellular processes to ensure that living organisms
remain “alive”.
 In order for you to understand living things, some knowledge of basic chemistry is necessary.
 This knowledge will be useful in helping you understand biology, as all organisms are chemical
machines.
Matter
 All matter is composed of one or more
elements.
 Element:
 Definition:
 All known elements are organized by
physical and chemical properties within the Periodic Table of the
Elements.
Understanding the Periodic Table of The Elements
 Each element displayed within the periodic table is physically different
from the other 116 elements.
 The basic “unit” of the element is called the atom.
 These atoms are made up of 3 particles:
 1. Protons:
 2. Electrons:
 3. Neutrons:
Structure of the Atom
 The very center of the atom is called the nucleus.
 A.
 B.
 C.
 Surrounding the nucleus are the electrons.
 A.
 B.
 C.
 D.
Electrons
 Atoms possess a great deal of energy in the form of chemical energy.
 A.
 B.
When Atoms Combine: Chemical Bonds
 Atoms are highly reactive and interactive.
A.
B.
1.
2.
Forming Molecules
 Molecules are able to form through the formation of chemical bonds.
Definition:
Molecules are chemically neutral. If they end up becoming positively or negatively charged, they are
called an “ion”. This happens if they gain or lose electrons.
3 Types of Bonds
1. Covalent bond:
2. Ionic bond:
3. Hydrogen bond:
Chemical Reactions
 The process by which elements react to form new compounds
requires a chemical change.
A.
B.
C.
THE WRAP UP:
How Does All of This Connect?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
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