Human Growth & Development Final Exam Study Guide First

Human Growth & Development
Final Exam Study Guide
First Semester: 2015 – 2016
This is a comprehensive final over the key information we have studied this semester. When reviewing,
please pay special attention to each chapter’s vocabulary, major concepts, and overall essential information.
I suggest that you re-read the summaries of each chapter and review the following: vocabulary definitions,
chapter notes, Progress Tests, and old tests. Information from the following chapters will be included on
your final exam. NOTE: This review is a guide for studying, not an exact copy of your test.
Chapter 1 - Introduction
The study of Human Development: Know what it is and what it encompasses
Characteristics of The Life-Span Perspective: Multidirectional, Multicontextual, Multidisciplinary, etc.
Three domains: Biosocial, Cognitive, and Psychosocial
Butterfly Effect
Plasticity: Define and understand how it applies to Human Development
Social construction
Socioeconomic Status (SES)
Culture, Ethnicity, and Race: Know what they are and how they are different
The Scientific Method: Identify and describe, know the basic steps, and the importance of replication
Hypothesis and Variable (dependent and independent)
Research Methods: Observations, Correlation, Experimentation, Naturalistic, Survey, Case-study
In experiments, be able to identify the experimental and control groups
Dependent and independent variables: Identify examples of each and know the definitions of each
Quantitative and Qualitative Research: Distinguish between
Cross-Sectional, Longitudinal, and Cross-Sequential Research
Validity, Accuracy, and Reliability: Know what they are and distinguish between them
Correlations: Know what they are, know the difference between positive and negative correlations and know
that they do not mean causation
Scientific Ethics
The Ecological Approach to Human Development
Chapter 2 – Theories of Development
Theory: Be able to define
Developmental Theories
Three Grand Theories: Psychoanalytic (Freud), Learning Theory (Watson), Cognitive Theory (Piaget)
Emergent Theories: Define them and know that they are relatively new
Sociocultural and Epigenetic Theories
Eclectic Perspective
Chapter 3 – Heredity and Environment
Genetics and Environment: Understand the balance and influences of nature and nurture
Heredity: Know the basic Principles
Gamete, Zygote, Embryo, Fetus
Know the male and female Gametes (Sperm and Ovum)
Duplication, Division, and Differentiation
Genes, Chromosomes, DNA
Understand that the Genetic Code is used to make proteins
Know the four bases on genes and know how they are paired
The Human Genome Project: Know what a genome is
Sex Chromosomes (the 23rd pair) and X-linked Genes: Be able to identify the differences between males
and females, know who determines the sex of the child, etc.
Know the number of Possible Genetic Combinations
Distinguish between Monozygotic and Dizygotic Twins
Polygenic traits, multifactorial traits, additive genes
Genotype and Phenotype: Know what they refer to
Dominant and Recessive Genes
Know what alleles are
Spontaneous abortion
Chromosomal Miscount/Abnormalities (such as Alpha-fetoprotein and ultrasounds)
Know why we study genetic abnormalities
Chapter 4 – Prenatal Development and Birth
Germinal Period
Period of the Embryo
Period of the Fetus: Longest period of development
Implantation: Know when and how it occurs
Neural Tube: Know what it will become
Development of the Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Nervous, Digestive, and Reproductive System
Placenta: Know what it does
Age of Viability: Define it, know the critical factor in attaining it
Teratology, Teratogens, and Behavioral Teratogens
Critical Period
Threshold and Interaction Effects
HIV and AIDS: Know how it is passed from mother to child
Effects of drugs on Prenatal Development
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Effects and Causes
Low Birthweight, Preterm, and Small for Gestational Age
The Normal Birth: Know how it occurs, average weight, etc.
Apgar Scale: Know the five characteristics that are evaluated
Cesarean Section, Cerebral Palsy, Anoxia
Postpartum Depression
Chapter 5 – The First Two Years
Understand the growth in Size and Shape
Know what a “norm” is
Know the factors that influence growth (genes, food, etc.)
Head Sparing
Brain Growth: neuron, axons, dendrites, synapse, neurotransmitters, and transient exuberance
Know the role of the Cortex
Know why the brain experience proliferation and pruning
Immunizations: Know what they are and their impact on society
Reflexes: Breathing, sucking, rooting
Senses: Know the senses of the newborn, the changes they experience, and the strength/weaknesses of
Binocular vision
Gross Motor Skills: Know what they are and identify examples
Fine Motor Skills: Know what they are and identify examples
Walking: Know when a child can walk well unassisted
Sensation and Perception: Know what they are and distinguish between them
Nutrition: the benefits of Breast Feeding, first solid foods, etc.
Protein-calorie malnutrition, Marasmus, Kwashiorkor
Toddlers: Know why this name is appropriate
Chapter 8 – The Play Years
The effects of genetics, health care, and nutrition on growth
Know the weight of preschoolers and compare to other periods
Brain Growth: How quickly it grows and the dynamic changes that occur
Corpus Callosum: Know how it connects the hemispheres of the brain
Injury Control: Know the leading cause of death is accidents
Understand the changes in Gross and Fine motor skills in this period
Child Maltreatment: Know what it is and how it is defined
Abuse & Neglect: Know what they are and their differences
Obesity: Know the effect on children
Nutritional differences between children of developed and developing nations
Early tooth decay
Know the correlation of abuse and neglect: SES, education, home, supervision, etc.
Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Preventions
Chapter 11 – The School Years
Know the major changes in size and shape, overall growth slows down
Body Mass Index: Distinguish between “overweight” and “obese”
Reaction time
Differences/Similarities in male and female athletic ability
Achievement, Aptitude, and IQ Tests: distinguish between and identify examples of each
Developmental Psychopathology
Autism and Asperger Syndrome: Define and know impact of each on development
Learning Disability
Dyslexia and Dyscalcula
ADHD (Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder): Know and identify the symptoms
Least Restrictive Environment, Mainstreaming, Resource Room, and Inclusion: Distinguish between each