Midterm Study Guide 1

Psychology 101
Midterm Study Guide
Chapter 12
1- Define Psychology.
2- When and where was the birth of psychology?
3- Psychological Testing: projective and objective tests
4- Describe the major principles of the following perspectives:
Gordon Allport: cardinal, central, and secondary traits
The Big Five
Freud: defense mechanism, structure of personality, psychosexual
stages of development
Erikson: the psychosocial stages of development
Carl Rogers: unconditional positive regard, the self and the
organism, congruence
Maslow: hierarchy of needs
Rollo May
Bandura: self-efficacy, reciprocal determinism in self-efficacy
Julian Rotter: locus of control, reciprocal determinism in locus of
Developmental Neuroscience
Psychology 101
Chapter 2
Neuroscience and Behavior
1- Describe features and functions of the central and peripheral nervous
2- Distinguish between the somatic and autonomic nervous systems.
3- Distinguish between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous
4- Describe the structure of the neuron and how impulses are
transmitted from one neuron to another.
5- List/describe the role of neurotransmitters.
6- List/describe the function of hormones.
7- Describe the cerebrum.
8- Explain lateralization.
9- Explain plasticity.
10-Know the main functions of the hippocampus, amygdale,
hypothalamus, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, glial cells, myelin sheath
11-Know the three messengers in the body: neurotransmitters,
endorphins, and hormones.
12- Know the function of the endocrine system.
13-Know the function of the lobes of the brain
Psychology 101
Chapter 3
Nature and Nurture
1- Destinguish among genes, chromosomes, and DNA.
2- What are the characteristics of genes.
3- Describe how each human has a unique genetic pattern.
4- Describe Chomsky’s position on language acquisition.
5- Discuss the evolutionary approaches to mating and marriage.
6-Know the results of twin studies.
7-know the difference between meiosis and mitosis.
8- Define the following terms: genotype, phenotype, gametes, diploid
cells, haploid cells, recessive genes, dominant genes. Genomes
9- Distinguish between the three kinds of genetic engineering: gene therapy,
germ-line genetic alteration, genetic enhancement
Psychology 101
Chapter 9
Thinking, Language, and Intelligence
1- Explain inductive, deductive, and dialectical reasoning.
2- Describe Sternberg’s theory of intelligence.
3- Distinguish between informal and formal reasoning.
4- List and describe the stages of reflective judgment.
5- Discuss the nine types of cognitive bias that can influence reasoning.
6- Define and explain the g factor in intelligence.
7- Distinguish between the psychometric approach and the cognitive
8- Describe Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences.
9- Explain the barriers to Thinking:
a. confirmation bias
b. Representative heuristics
c. Availability heuristics or exaggerating the improbable
d. Biases due to fixation or mental sets
e. Overconfidence or hindsight bias
f. The need for cognitive consistency
g. biases due to functional fixation
h. belief perseverance
10- Explain reliability and validity
11-Explain language development
Skinner, Chomsky, statistical learning
12-Thinking and language