Photosynthesis How do we grow a plant? But is that all???? Plants need to do Photosynthesis Chlorophyll inside What you don’t see… Thylakoid: individual membranebound compartments where photosynthesis actually occurs (contain the photosynthetic pigments) Granum: stacks of thylakoids Photosynthesis- what goes in? Sunlight (light Energy) Water H2O Carbon Dioxide CO2 Photosynthesis- what comes out? Sunlight (Light Energy) Glucose C6H12O6 Water H2O Oxygen Carbon Dioxide CO2 O2 Photosynthesis Let’s write the chemical equation on the board!! What are the reactants, What are the products? What type of energy transformations are going on? – Light Energy into Chemical Energy Reaction CO2 + H2O + light O2 + C6H12O6 But it’s not balanced 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light 6 O2 + C6H12O6 Reactants Products Photosynthesis has an “opposite” reaction… ALL cells must perform this reaction – (not like photosynthesis that only occurs in autotrophs) – Occurs in Mitochondria – It’s why we breathe In fact the name we give to breathing is named after this cellular process – Any guesses??? Cell Respiration Carbon Dioxide Glucose CO2 C6H12O6 Water H2O Oxygen O2 Energy Reaction Let’s draw the chemical formula on the board!! What are the reactants, What are the products? What type of energy transformations are going on? – Chemical Energy (Food) into Chemical Energy (ATP) Two Types of Respiration You are currently taking in oxygen and burning sugars within the mitochondria to release chemical energy. This process is also known as Aerobic Respiration. Why? – Because Oxygen is present which allows your cells to burn glucose into energy much more efficiently. What would happen if your cells were deprived of oxygen?? Would they still be able to burn glucose to make energy?? YES!! Anaerobic Respiration – What does anaerobic mean? NO OXYGEN PRESENT Ex: Fermentation in the body cells – Long distance runners often create an anaerobic environment for their cells Not a very energy efficient process & a bad side effect is produced: Lactic Acid A different example of fermentation Breweries rely on this process: – Yeast cells need energy to survive, so they will breakdown sugars in anaerobic conditions and a byproduct is alcohol. – How do you know CO2 is produced? Fermentation Basics Anaerobic Animals produce lactic acid and CO2 Plants produce ethyl alcohol and CO2 Less efficient…pgs 124-125 Efficiency of Types of Cell Respiration Aerobic respiration yields at least 36 ATP Anaerobic nets a measly 2 ATP Based on the graph, what color is this plant: 91% 5% 5% 1. Green 2. Red 3. Violet Based on the graph, what colors are best absorbed by this plant: 5% 95% 0% 0% 1. 2. 3. 4. Green and orange Red and violets Violet and green Green and reds 0% 14% 86% 0% 0% Based on the graph below, which color light is least absorbed by plants for photosynthesis 1. Red 2. Yellow 3. Green 4. Orange 5. Violet What is this graph showing you?? pH A scientist wants to study photosynthesis in a newly discovered species. Which of these cell structures should the scientist study? 100% Vacuoles Chloroplasts Mitochondria Ribosomes 0% M m es so ib o ito ch la s hl or op C R ts s ol e cu 0% on dr ia 0% Va 1. 2. 3. 4. Muscle cells require more energy than do most other cells. Which organelles would you expect to find in greater abundance in muscle cells than in most other cells? 95% hl or op la s ts m es so ib o ito ch M R ili a 5% 0% on dr ia 0% C Cilia Mitochondria Ribosomes Chloroplasts C 1. 2. 3. 4. Which of these processes results in carbon dioxide production? 77% Osmosis Respiration Evaporation Photosynthesis 18% 5% he s is tio n Ph ot os yn t or a ap Ev R es sm os pi ra tio n is 0% O 1. 2. 3. 4. Some organisms that live in the intestines of cows do not require oxygen to survive. Which of these best describes the process by which these organisms obtain energy? 100% 1. Osmosis 2. Mitosis 3. Cellular respiration 4. Fermentation 0% O os m s 0% is M si ito C s l el ar ul re 0% n tio ri a sp Fe rm tio ta n e n Let’s fill in this chart with the molecules and then the energy transformations _____________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _____________________ Why do leaves change colors?? Carotene Xanthophyll Chlorophyll A Chlorophyll B These chromatograms show chlorophyll b at the bottom, followed by chlorophyll a, xanthophylls, and carotenes.