Literary Terms What you need to know. Based on the Bari Nirenberb’s presentation Character A person in a literary text. Who are the major characters in All My Sons? Keller, Mother and Chris. Who are the minor characters? Jim and Sue Bayliss and Frank and Lydia Lubey. Antagonist / Protagonist The protagonist, also known as the hero is the main character in a literary text. The antagonist is a main character in conflict with the protagonist. In Rules of the Game, who is the protagonist? Waverly Who is the antagonist? Mrs. Jong Plot / Climax Plot is the structure and patterns of events of the story, novel or play. Climax is The turning point of a text, the point of “make or break”. What is the climax of the story Mr. Know All? The moment that Mr. Kelada has to declare whether or not the pearls are real. Setting Where and when a story takes place. Why is the setting of Mr. Know All significant? The story takes place on a passenger ship after World War I. At this time, accommodations were scarce, so the narrator has to share a cabin with Mr. Kelada. Because they’re on a ship, they are in constant contact with each other – there’s nowhere to “run away” to. Narrator A literary character who tells a story. What do we know about the narrator in Mr. Know All? He is British, he is traveling on a ship from San Francisco to Yokohama and he is prejudiced against those who are not British. Point of View The focus from which a story is told. Name one behavior of Mr. Kelada’s that was annoying from the narrator’s point of view. He was too chatty. This is significant because perhaps from the point of view of others on the ship, Mr. Kelada wasn’t so annoying. Conflict The struggle in a text often between the protagonist and the antagonist. Name one of the main conflicts in the play All My Sons. The conflict between family loyalty, which is what Joe believes is most important, and responsibility to society, which is what Chris believes in. Foreshadowing A literary device used by writers to give their readers clues or hints about future events in the story. What does Joe say that foreshadows the end of the play? “I’m his father and he’s my son, and if there’s something bigger than that I’ll put a bullet in my head!” Theme The main topic or message of a literary text. What is the theme of All My Sons? Responsibility to society . What is the theme of Mr. Know All? Prejudice What are the main themes of Rules of the Game? Mother-daughter conflict and a cultural conflict between American and Chinese cultures. Stereotype A figure typical of and therefore representative of a whole social or ethnic group. A stereotype can be created through physical appearance, accent, clothing, behavior, etc. What features of Mr. Kelada’s appearance and behavior described early on in the story make him a stereotype? His hooked nose, his long black hair, his dark skin, his exuberant gestures and his over-familiar behavior all make him appear to be Middle Eastern and certainly not a British gentleman. Metaphor Describing one thing in terms of something else. When explaining a metaphor, first state what two things are being compared, then explain how they are alike and give examples. Rules of the Game refers to the rules of chess, but chess can also be seen as a metaphor. Explain. Chess is a metaphor for life. In both chess and in life, there are rules you have to follow, for example, be patient and have foresight. In The Road Not Taken the two roads are metaphors of the options or choices we make in life. In both cases we have to examine each road or option very carefully before continuing our journey. Symbol / Symbolism Something which is both itself and also represents an idea. For example, a rose may symbolize beauty. What does the wall symbolize in the poem As I Grew older? The wall symbolizes the obstacles which prevent the speaker from achieving his dream, such as prejudice and racism. Stanza / Verse A group of lines which form a unit in a poem. A single line of a poem. How many stanza are there in the poem The Road Not Taken? 4 How many verses are there in each stanza? 5 Tone The attitude with which a story is told or the attitude with which something or someone is described, for example, ironic, cynical, humorous.