Introduction to plants

Introduction to plants
Chapter 12
Warm up
• How many types of plants do you know? Can
you name them.
Identify four characteristics that all plants share.
Distinguish between sporophyte and gametophyte.
Define nonvascular plants.
Define vascular plants.
Recognize mosses an an example of nonvascular
• Describe the life cycle of a moss.
• Recognize ferns as seedless vascular plants.
• Describe the lifecycle of a fern.
• How can you differentiate a plant from an animal?
Characteristics of plants
• Plants come in different sizes and different
shapes. So, what do cactuses, water lilies ferns
and all other plants have in common?
2- Cuticle
• Most plants live on dry land and need sunlight
to live. But why don’t plants dry out?
• A cuticle is a waxy layer that coats most of the
surfaces of plants that are exposed to air and
keeps plants from drying out.
3- cell wall
• How do plants stay upright?
• Carbohydrates and proteins in the cell wall form a
hard material.
• Cell wall support and protect the plant cell.
4- Reproduction
• Plants have two stages in their lifecycle:
1- the sporophyte stage
2- the gametophyte stage
Sporophyte and gametophyte stages
Sporophyte stage
• In this stage the plant make spores. In a
suitable conditions such as damp soil the
spore of some plants grow. These new plants
are now called gametophyte.
Gametophyte stage
• During this stage, female gametophytes
produce eggs and male gametophyte produce
• Egg and sperm are sex cells. Once they join
the fertilized egg grows into a sporophyte that
makes spores and the cycle starts again.
Plant classification
• Although all plants share basic characteristics,
they can be classified into four groups.
• At first plants can be:
1- vascular plants
2- nonvascular plants
Vascular and nonvascular plants
Nonvascular plants
• Examples: Moses, liverworts and hornworts.
• They don’t have specialized tissues to move
water and nutrients through the plant.
• Depend on diffusion to move materials from
one part to another.
• They are small in size.
Vascular plants
They have vascular tissue: specialized tissue for
the transport of water and nutrients.
• They can be of different sizes and shapes.
• Live almost everywhere
• Have true roots, stems and leaves.
• Are divided into three groups: seedless
plants, flowering plants with seeds and
nonflowering plants with seeds
Seedless plants
Seedless plants
Vascular Plants
liverworts and
Types of Mosses
Characteristics of Mosses
• No true roots, No
vascular tissues (no
• Simple stems & leaves
• Have rhizoids for
• Live in Damp terrestrial
Life cycle of mosses
Seedless vascular plants: Ferns
• roots, feathery leaves & underground stems
• have vascular tissues (transport & support)
• Spore-producing organ on the underside of
leaves (reproduction)
• Damp & shady places
• Example: ferns, horsetail and club mosse
Wrap up
• What are the four characteristics between
• Describe the lifecycle of a plant.
• Classify the different groups of plants.
• Differentiate between mosses and ferns.
• What is the difference between gametophyte
of a moss and that of a fern.
• The skill worksheets
• Section review