Chapter 11 Study Guide FALCON SCIENCE LESSON 1 1. Pure Substance-a single kind of matter with a specific make up or composition. 2. Mixture- is 2 or more substances that are together physically but not chemically. 3. Substances = 1 of the same kind Mixture = more than 1 kind together 4. Elements-a substance cannot be broken down into any other substances by chemical or physical means 5. Compounds-a substance made of 2 or more elements chemically combined. 6. 2 types are Homogeneous, Heterogeneous 7. Example of Heterogeneous= 8. Example of Homogeneous= 9. Mixtures are easy to separate, because they are NOT chemically combined. 10 1. Distillation, 2. Filtration, 3. Evaporation, 4. Magnet Lesson 2 1. Mixtures are classified by Solution, Colloid, or Suspension. 2. Solution – mixture containing a solvent & at least 1 solute. 3. Solvent- is the part of the solution usually present in the largest amount. (water, liquid, etc.) 4. Solute – the substance dissolved by the solvent. 5. Universal solvent is water…. 6. Air (O2 and other gases), teeth filling (silver in mercury) 7. Examples of Colloids 8. Example of Suspension "In chemistry, a suspension is a heterogenous fluid containing solid particles that are sufficiently large for sedimentation. " Mud or muddy water, is where soil, clay, or silt particles are suspended in water. Flour suspended water Paint Chalk powder suspended in water. Dust particles suspended in air. juice w/ pulp italian dressing sea salt in the air from crashing ocean waves clouds, fog 9. A solution forms when particles of the solute separate from each other and become surrounded by particles of the solvent (the greater amount). 10. Salt has an Ionic bond (not holding hands) it’s more an attraction, so they can be separated and be attracted to other ions in the water. Sugar has a Covalent bond remains unbroken even if there is a polar attraction. 11. Solutes raise the boiling point above the solvent’s normal point – Solutes lower the freezing point of a solution below that of the solvent. Lesson 3 1. Dilute solution – a mixture with only a little solute dissolved. 2. Concentrated solution –a mixture that has a lot of solute dissolved in the solvent. 3. Solubility-the measure of how much solute can dissolve in a solvent at a given temperature. 4. Factors Affecting Solubility- 1. pressure, 2.solvents used, 3. Temperature 5. Saturated solution – when you’ve added so much solute that no more dissolves 6. How Pressure Affects Solubility Pressure has a negative affect on solubility. The higher the air pressure, the lower the solubility. This is because pressure causes the molecules of the liquid to be forced closer together which decreases the solubility of gases in the liquid. 7. How Other Solvents Affect Solubility Solubility of a solute in a solvent purely depends on the nature of both solute and solvent. A polar solute dissolved in polar solvent. Solubility of a non-polar solute in a solvent is large. A polar solute has low solubility or insoluble in a nonpolar solvent. 8. How Temperature Affects Solubility Solubility generally increases with increase temperature, however gases are more soluble in cold solvent than in hot.