Is the study of the structure and shape of
the body and body parts and their
relationship to one another.
› Gross anatomy: the study of large parts of
the body
› Microscopic anatomy: the study of
microscopic parts
Is the study of how the body and its parts
work or function
› Neurophysiology: The study of the workings
of the nervous system
› Cardiac physiology: The study of the
function of the heart
Anatomy and Physiology are always
 Structure determines which functions
can take place
The body exhibits many levels of
› Chemical level – atoms combine to form molecules
› Cellular Level – molecules combine to make organelles
which form cells
› Tissues – consists of cells that have a common function
› Organs- structure composed of 2 or more tissue types that
perform a specific function
› Organ Systems- a group of organs that cooperate to
accomplish a common purpose
› Organism – 11 body systems make-up the living body
Smooth muscle
Smooth muscle
2. Cellular level
Cells are made
up of molecules
3. Tissue Level
Tissue consists of
similar types of cells
1. Chemical Level
Atoms combine to
form molecules
Blood vessels
6. Organismal level
Human organisms are
made up of many organ
4. Organ Level
Organs are made up
of different types of
5. Organ System Level
Organ Systems consist of
different organs that work
closely together
11 body systems
› Respiratory
› Nervous
› Urinary/Excretory
› Endocrine
› Digestive
› Reproductive
› Integumentary
› Skeletal
› Circulatory
› Muscular
› Immune
External covering of the body, skin
Waterproofs the body
Cushions and protects the deeper tissues
from injury
Prevents internal organs from drying out
Regulates body temperature
Temperature, pressure, pain receptors are
located in the skin
Consists of bones, cartilage, ligaments,
and joints
Supports the body and provides a
framework for skeletal muscles
Provides protection for organs
Formation of blood cells
Storehouse for minerals
Fast-acting control center
Consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves,
and sensory receptors
Controls body activities
Endocrine glands produce hormones
which regulate other structures in the
Composed of the heart and blood vessels
Carries oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and
other substances to and from the tissue
cells where exchanges are made
White blood cells help protect the body
against toxins
The heart acts as the blood pump
Includes the lymphatic organs, lymph
nodes, spleen, and tonsils
Returns leaked fluid from the blood to the
blood vessels so that blood can be
continuously circulating through the body
Helps to cleanse the body and house the
cells involved in immunity
Keeps the body constantly supplied with
oxygen and to remove the carbon
Consists of the nasal passages, pharynx,
larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
A long tube that runs from the oral cavity to
the anus
 Includes the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach,
small & large intestines, and rectum
 Breaks down food and delivers the products
to the blood for dispersal to the body cells
 Ingestible foodstuffs are eliminated as feces
Rids the body of nitrogen containing waste
(urea and uric acid) in the form of urine
 Maintains the body’s water and salt balance
 Regulates the acid-base balance of the
 Composed of the kidneys, ureters, bladder,
and urethra
Exists primarily to produce offspring
› Testes produces sperm and male sex hormone
› Includes the scrotum, penis, glands and duct system
› Ovary produces eggs; or ova and female sex hormones
› Includes the uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina
› The uterus provides the site for the development of the
fetus once fertilization has occurred
› Mammary glands in the breast produce milk for
Necessary Life Functions
Survival Needs
Organ Systems do not work alone
› The integumentary system protects the body
as a whole from the external environment
› The digestive and respiratory system , in
connection with the external environment,
take in nutrients and oxygen
› Nutrients and oxygen are distributed by the
blood to all body cells
› Elimination of metabolic wastes from the
body is accomplished by the urinary and
respiratory system
Maintain Boundaries
 Movement
 Respond to Environmental Change
 Take in and digest nutrients
 Carry out metabolism
 Dispose of waste
 Reproduce
 Grow
An organism’s insides must remain
distinct from its outsides
 Every cell in the human body is
surrounded by a membrane that
contains its contents and restricts the
entry of potentially damaging or
unnecessary substances
 The whole body is enclosed by the
integumentary system
Includes all the activities promoted by
the muscular system
 The muscular system is aided by the
skeletal system
 Also occurs when substances such as
blood, food stuffs, and urine are
propelled through the internal organs of
the cardiovascular, digestive and urinary
The ability to sense changes (stimuli) in
the environment and then to react to it.
 The nervous system bears the majority of
the responsibility because they fire
electrical impulses quickly between
each other
Process of breaking down and absorbing
food into simple molecules that can be
absorbed into the blood for delivery to
all body cells by the cardiovascular
All chemical reactions that occur within the
body cells
› Breaks down complex substances into simpler
building blocks
› Makes larger structures from smaller ones
› Using nutrients and oxygen to produce ATP
 ATP – energy rich molecules that powers cellular
Depends on
› Digestive and respiratory systems to make nutrients
and oxygen available to the blood
› Circulatory system to distribute these substances
throughout the body
Regulated chiefly by hormones secreted by
the glands of the endocrine system
Process of removing excreta (waste)
from the body
 The body must get rid of nonuseful
substances produced during metabolism
and digestion.
The production of offspring
 Can occur at the cellular or organismal
 Cellular
› Mitosis – somatic cells
› Meiosis – gametes
The function of the reproductive system
is regulated by hormones of the
endocrine system
An increase in size
 An increase in the number of cells
 Cell-constructing activities must occur at
a faster rate than cell-destroying
The goal of all body systems is to
maintain life
 Includes:
› Nutrients
› Oxygen
› Water
› Temperature
› Atmospheric Pressure
Approximately 20% of the air we breathe
is pure oxygen
 It is made available to cells in body
through the circulatory and respiratory
Taken in via your diet
Contain chemicals used for energy and cell
Carbohydrates are the major energy producing
Proteins and fats (lipids) are essential for building
cell structures
Fats cushion body organs and provide reserve fuel
Minerals and vitamins are required for the
chemical reactions that go in cells and for oxygen
transports in the blood.
60-80% of body weight
 The single most abundant chemical
substance in the body
 Provides the fluid base for body secretions
and excretions
 Obtained solely from ingested foods and
 Lost by evaporation from the lungs and
skin and in body excretions
Body temperature must be maintained at
around 37oC (98oF)
 If body temperature drops below normal
range, metabolic reactions become slower
and finally stop
 If body temperature is too high, chemical
reactions proceed too fast, and body
proteins begin to break down, causing death.
The force exerted on the surface of the
body by the weight of air
 Controls breathing and the rate of
Carbon dioxide exchange
 High altitudes where air is thin and
atmospheric pressure is lower, gas
exchange may be too slow to support
cellular metabolism.
The body’s ability to maintain relatively
stable internal conditions, even though
the outside world is changing
 Indicates a dynamic state of equilibrium
› EX.
 Blood levels/ blood pressure
 Excretion of waste
 Body temperature
Communication is IMPORTANT
 Accomplished chiefly by the endocrine
and nervous systems
 All homeostatic control mechanisms
have 3 parts
› Receptor
› Control center
› Effector
Some type of sensor that monitors and
responds to changes in the environment
 Responds to changes called stimuli by
sending information (input) to the control
center along the afferent pathway
› Afferent means to approach/ go towards the
Control Center
control center
Determines the levels (set point) at which a
variable is to be maintained
 Analyzes the information it receives
 Determines the appropriate response or
course of action
Provides the means for the control
center’s response (output) to the stimulus
Information flows from the control center
to the effector along the efferent
› Efferent information exits the control center
The results of the response then feed back
to the influence the stimulus
› Depressing it – negative feed back
› Enhancing it – positive feed back
Interaction between the receptor, control center and effector is necessary for
normal operation of the system
› Home heating systems
› Hypothalamus by regulating heart rate, blood
pressure, breathing rate, blood levels of
C6H12O6, O2, CO2, and minerals
The net effect of the response is to the
stimulus is to shut off the original stimulus
or to reduce its intensity
Rare in the body
Increase the original disturbance
(stimulus) and push the variable further
from its original value.
› Blood clotting
› Birth of a baby
Cause some diseases
 Internal conditions become less and less
 Cause a greater risk for illness and
produce changes in the body