Chapter 16: Political Revolutions AS 1. To what

• Definition: A French revolutionary party
founded in 1789.
• Significance: leaders of the new convention that
met amid mob violence in France. In a close
vote, the Convention voted to execute the king
in January of 1793. this began the “second
543 Spodek
• Definition: Leading urban professional and
commercial classes of the third estate.
• Significance: the French Revolution was triggered by
the king needing funds. The king looked for some of
these funds to come from the third estate, or more
specifically the bourgeoisie, who were the more well
off people of the third estate. The king did not get his
funds and this triggered the calling of the EstatesGeneral.
• 540 Spodek
• Definition: A meeting of all three classes, or estates, in
France for the king to make funds.
• Significance: it had not been convened since 1614 and
its procedures were disputed. When the nobles got
their wishes to meet in separate places according to
estate, the third estate got enraged and boycotted. The
third estate then called themselves the “national
assembly” and said that they would not disband until a
new constitution was drafted.
541 Spodek
• Definition: A group of 18th century French writers and
philosophers who emphasized the supremacy of
human reason and advocated freedom of expression
and social, economic, and political reform.
• Significance: The philisophes were the leaders of the
French Enlightenment and their philosophy helped
inspire the American and French revolutions. They
had considerable influence over new political
533 Spodek
• England- the Glourious Revolution (1688)
• France- the French Revolution (1789)
• Corsica- birthplace of Naopleon (1799)
• Prussia- German Revolution (1750)
• Other Red Places- important in the
Louis XVI
Did What?
As the King of France, he solicited funds to
pay for Versailles by calling the Estates
General in 1789. Louis XVI was
married to Marie-Antoinette.
So What?
The third estate was not happy with the
situation Louis XVI set up, so on June
20 of 1789 they took the “Oath of the
Tennis Court” which said that they
would not give up their struggle until a
new constitution had been drafted. The
actions of Louis XVI began a series of
revolutions in France.
Louis XVI during his reign as King of France.
Place de la Bastille, Paris
(Part 3)
(540-543 Spodek)
Napoleon Bonaparte
Did What?
Elected himself First Consul in 1799
after the French system of law had
been redefined. In 1802 he became
consul for life. In 1804 he became
the emperor of France and the
French Revolution ended. He
remained in power until 1812.
So What?
As ruler he established the Code
Napoleon, which maintained the
equality of classes. He also
established the concordat with the
Pope. Napoleon then tried to
spread the ideas he had established
in France throughout Europe, but he
failed to conquer Britain and Russia.
(545-547 Spodek)
The confident Napoleon crossing the
Alps to defeat Italy.
Simon Bolivar
Simon Bolivar in 1825- the year he captured
Peru and Upper Peru.
Did What?
Bolivar was a Creole Elite and military
leader of the Latin American
revolution from 1810 to 1830.
Bolivar was born in Venezuela, but
studied in Europe (Spain) for three
years in his late teens. He
returned to Venezuela (Caracas) in
1807 and in 1813 regained
Venezuelan independence. In
1819 he defeated the Spanish to
create the Republic of Colombia
where he served as President. In
1825 he captured Peru and Upper
Peru and instated himself as
President of both.
So What?
The military leadership of Bolivar is
responsible for uniting much of
Latin America and Northern South
(551-553 Spodek)
Father Miguel Hidalgo
Did What?
Lead the revolution in Mexico as a
Creole Elite before Father Jose
Maria Morelos took command.
So What?
The independence movement lead
by Hidalgo was different than
those in South America. Hidalgo
understood that peasant poverty
was a result of Spanish and
creole rule, so the movement
attacked creole elites. Despite
Hidalgo’s execution in 1811,
Mexico gained independence in
1821 due to the initial effects of
One of the leaders of the Mexican
Revolution- Father Miguel Hidalgo.
(553 Spodek)
Political Revolutions Timeline
(540-555 Spodek)
Chapter 16: Political Revolutions
1. To what degree did the acclaimed philosopher,
Thomas Hobbes, refine English politics?
As one of England’s most prominent political philosophers,
Thomas Hobbs redefined the relationship between the state and
its people. Not only was Hobbs the first to postulate the “state of
nature” he also proceeded to suggest the existence of a “mythical
social contract”. Within these two bonds, Hobbs was able to
create a balance that justified the powers given to the King and,
essentially taken from the people.
Spodek (525)
2. Explain the Estates General as well as the events that
proceeded this meeting.
Leaders of the French community attended the Estates
General convened by King Louis XVI 1789. The meeting,
relatively concise, was proceed by a rapid social, political and
cultural division of the French people. Ultimately, France’s
lower classes, composed of rising merchants and professionals,
revolted soon after.
Spodek (540)
3.Who were the Jacobins, the Girodins and the
Montagnards? What is their importance?
The Jacobins, Girondins and the Montagnards were all members of
French revolutionary groups. Each party helped lead the Convention
which had been convened by the National assembly in 1792. Held
shortly after the Assembly had disbanded, the Convention was to serve
as a national meeting for members of what used to be the National
Assembly. During the meeting, elected officials worked to create a
revised constitution for newly dissociated group.
4. How did the Napoleonic Wars effect the
development of culture in surrounding regions?
The Napoleonic wars ended feudal privileges, provided
equality of right, introduced religious tolerance, codified
laws and free trade to surrounding regions. Notable
regions affected by the spread of Napoleonic power
include Germany, The Netherlands and a large portion
of Italy.
Spodek (543)
Spodek (546)
The Revolt of the Third Estate
Philosophical Rationales
Napoleon’s Rise to Power
International War
Abolition of the Slave Trade
El Fin