Biology Semester 1 Final Exam Review January 2014 Chapter 2: Biochemistry 1. On the pH scale, the lower numbers mean _acidic____ and the higher numbers mean ___basic_____. (pg. 44) Biochemistry Chapter 3 2. Most of the molecules that make up living things are made from which element? Carbon 3. List the 4 macromolecules. Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids 4. What is the function of carbohydrates? Storage of energy 5. Glycogen, used to store energy in the liver and muscle tissue, is an example of which type of macromolecule? Carbohydrates 6. Amino acids are the building blocks of which macromolecule? Proteins 7. Which element is found in proteins, but not in carbohydrates and lipids? Nitrogen 8. Which macromolecule makes up part of cell membranes ? Lipids 9. An organism’s genetic information is stored in which type of macromolecule ? Nucleic Acids Cell Structure & Function Chapter 4 10. List the 3 parts of Cell Theory. 1. 2. 3. All living things are composed of cells. Cells only come from other cells. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in an organism. 11. The size of a cell is limited by its… Surface Ratio Area to Volume 12. The packaging and distribution center of the cell is the… Golgi Apparatus 13. List the major functions of the plasma membrane. – Is selectively permeable – Separates the cell from the environment – Allows materials to enter and leave the cell Homeostasis and Cell Transport Chapter 5 14. What is a contractile vacuole? An organelle in paramecium that pumps extra water outside the cell. 15. Why is drinking seawater harmful to humans? (Hint: Think about osmosis and hypertonic solutions!) Seawater is hypertonic to cells causing them to lose water, leading to dehydration 16. Define diffusion. Movement of molecules from a high concentration to a low concentration. 17. When would substances be likely to enter a cell through diffusion? When the concentration of a substance is greater outside the cell than inside. 18. Define Osmosis. The diffusion of water. 19. Which way does water move during osmosis? Water moves from a high concentration to a low concentration. Chapter 6 Photosynthesis 20. Which process is directly used by producers (plants) to store energy in glucose? Photosynthesis 21. What is the equation for photosynthesis? 22. In what organelle does photosynthesis occur? The Chloroplast 23. Where did the energy originally stored in glucose come from? The Sun 24. During photosynthesis, _________ energy is converted into ___________ energy. Light Chemical 25. During photosynthesis, the energy from the sun splits the water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen. What happens to the oxygen during the process of photosynthesis? It is given off as a byproduct 26. Plants produce large amounts of oxygen during photosynthesis because…(Hint: See #14). Water molecules from the soil are soaked up the roots of the plant. The plant splits the water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen. The oxygen isn’t needed by the plant so it is given off as a by-product. 27. An acorn weighs approximately 200 grams. A full grown oak tree can weigh almost 10 metric tons (20,000,000 grams)! How do you explain where this extra mass comes from? Through the process of photosynthesis, the tree combines carbon dioxide from the atmosphere with water from the ground to produce polysaccharides like cellulose (wood), adding mass 28. In which organelle is a cell’s ATP energy produced? Mitochondria 29. If plants have chloroplasts that capture energy from sunlight and store it as chemical energy in glucose, why do they also have mitochondria? Mitochondria release energy in glucose to create ATP which the plant cell uses. Chapter 7 Cellular Respiration 30. Why is cellular respiration considered the opposite of photosynthesis? The products of photosynthesis are the reactants of cellular respiration. 31. How are photosynthesis and cellular respiration related? In photosynthesis, carbon dioxide and water are used to capture light energy and produce glucose and oxygen. In respiration, carbon dioxide and water result from the breakdown of glucose which releases chemical energy. 32. Why would an athlete lose weight over time if she increased her activity level but changed nothing else? She is using stored energy since her food intake has not changed. Homeostasis 33. The human body ha a system for returning pH to normal levels after exercise. This body process is called… Homeostasis 34. If you are dehydrated, what would happen to your urine production in order to maintain homeostasis? Decreased urine production to conserve water 35. How does perspiring (sweating) help the body maintain homeostasis? It helps cool the body down by decreasing your body temperature 36. Microbes that enter the body, causing disease, are known as… Pathogens 37. What is the function of the circulatory system? Transports oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, nutrients, and hormones to and from cells. 38. What is the function of the digestive system? To mechanically and chemically break down food and absorb nutrients 39. Microbes that enter the body, causing disease, are known as… Pathogens Ecology Chapter 18 1. List several biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem. Biotic (living) – Plants, bacteria, animals Abiotic (nonliving) – Energy, oxygen, moisture 2. The maintenance of a selfsustaining ecosystem requires what? Cycling of materials between organisms and their environment. 3. Define producers. Organisms that make their own food. Plants 4. In going from one trophic level to the next, what happens to the energy available? Does it increase or decrease? Energy decreases as you go up the pyramid. 5. Name the parts of the water cycle. Evaporation, Transpiration, Precipitation, Run-off, Seepage 6. If hawks were to hunt snakes to near extinction, what would happen to the rest of the ecosystem? The snakes prey population (mice) would increase and their predator’s (hawks) population would decrease because all of the snakes are almost gone. 7. What is a decomposer? Give 2 examples. Bacteria and Fungi help recycle chemical nutrients in an ecosystem by breaking down dead material. 8. What is a biogeochemical cycle? List the four cycles briefly and describe each one. Water and minerals needed by all organisms on Earth pass back and forth between the biotic and abiotic portions of the environment. Water Cycle, Nitrogen Cycle, Carbon Cycle and Phosphorus Cycle are examples. 9. If lots of hot water were dumped into a lake, what would happen to the amount of oxygen available to the fish? Hint: Heat removes the amount of oxygen from water. You would see a decrease in the amount of dissolved oxygen in the lake. 10. How much of the total energy is transferred from one energy level to the next in an energy pyramid? 10% 11. The producers in an ecosystem produce 25,000,000 kilocalories per year. How much energy is most likely available to the organisms in Level 2 of the pyramid? 2,500,000 kilocalories 25,000,000 x .10 (10%) = 2,500,000 12. How many levels can there be in an energy pyramid? Why? It depends. An energy pyramid is limited by the amount of energy that is lost at each trophic level. You could probably have 4-5 levels. 13. What is a consumer? Give 3 examples. An organism that needs to consume plants or other animals for energy. Examples: A Bumble Bee, Tiger, and an Eagle. 14. What’s the difference between a food chain and a food web? Draw an example of each. Food Chain – pathway of energy transfer through various stages as a result of the feeding patterns of a series of organisms Food Web – A diagram that shows the feeding relationship among organisms in an ecosystem Community Interactions Chapter 20 1. Define succession. The process of one community replacing another as a result of changing abiotic and biotic factors. 2. Explain secondary succession. Give an example. The change that takes place after a community of organisms has been removed by the soil remains. Example: A fire burns down a forest and after many years, it grows back. Human Impact on the Environment Chapter 22 1. How have the activities of people accelerated (sped up) extinction? Habitat destruction Hunting Harvesting Transfer of invasive species into new habitats 2. How has human pollution impacted the ozone layer? Burning large quantities of fossil fuels, generating a lot of carbon dioxide raising the carbon dioxide level, and releasing large quantities of chlorofluorocarbons into the atmosphere. 3. Are habitat destruction, hunting, and extinction all caused by human activity? Explain. Yes. Habitat destruction, hunting and introduction of invasive species are top reasons for mass extinction of species today because of human activities. 4. The pesticide DDT accumulates in the fatty tissue of animals and is transferred along food chains. DDT’s concentration (amount) increases as the food chain increases. This is called biological magnification. What organism in the food chain would receive the highest concentration of DDT? Producers, Primary Consumers, Herbivores or a Top Predator? Top Predator because they are the highest in the food chain!