File - Krausz Marine Biology

Ch. 4 Chapter Review Worksheet
Fundamentals of Biology
4.1 The Ingredients of Life
1. What is an organic molecule? What are the four types found in
living things?
2. Group the following organic compounds into the four types:
amino acids, cellulose, chitin, DNA, enzymes, fats, glucose,
nucleotides, oils, RNA, starch, waxes.
3. Name three ways a marine animal could use lipids to adapt to
life in seawater.
4. Write the formula for photosynthesis.
5. Explain how solar energy is converted into chemical energy
during photosynthesis.
6. Write the formula for respiration.
7. Why can it be considered the reverse of photosynthesis?
8. Using the terms autotrophs and Iheterotrophs describe which
organisms use photosynthesis and who uses respiration.
9. Why do you think photosynthesis is also called primary
10. What two elements are two of the most important nutrients by
4.2 Living Machinery
11. How are prokaryotes different from eukaryotes?
12. Describe the function of the following organelles? Nucleus,
Ribosomes, Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi Apparatus,
Mitochondria, Cell Wall, Chloroplasts, Flagella and cilia
13. Describe the levels of organization from a single cell to an
entire organism.
14. Describe the levels of organization from a single organism to
the entire biosphere.
4.3 Challenges of Life in the Sea
15. What is homeostasis?
16. What are the two main challenges marine organisms face
while trying to maintain homeostasis in the ocean?
17. What is diffusion?
18. Why is the cell membrane considered selectively permeable?
19. What is osmosis?
20. What will happen to a cell if the outside water has more or
less salt than it does?
21. How do cells move materials in or out of the cell against a
concentration gradient (against the normal flow of diffusion)?
22. What is the difference between an osmoconformer and an
23. How do saltwater and freshwater fishes deal water exchange
due to osmosis?
24. What happens to an organism’s metabolism when the
temperature goes up or down?
25. Compare an ectotherm to an endotherm. Give an example of
26. Compare an poikilotherm to an homeotherm. Give an
example of each.
4.4 Perpetuating Life
27. How do cells reproduce?
28. What is the difference between asexual and sexual
reproduction? Give an example of each.
29. What are the pros and cons of asexual and sexual
30. Describe how meiosis and fertilization take chromosomes
from both parents, yet keep the total number of chromosomes the
4.5 The Diversity of Life in the Sea
31. Describe natural selection in your own words.
32. What is a species?
33. How is a scientific name created?
34. What are the eight levels of classification; from domain to
35. Explain the three domain system of classification.