Ch. 4 Chapter Review Worksheet Fundamentals of Biology 4.1 The Ingredients of Life 1. What is an organic molecule? What are the four types found in living things? 2. Group the following organic compounds into the four types: amino acids, cellulose, chitin, DNA, enzymes, fats, glucose, nucleotides, oils, RNA, starch, waxes. 3. Name three ways a marine animal could use lipids to adapt to life in seawater. 4. Write the formula for photosynthesis. 5. Explain how solar energy is converted into chemical energy during photosynthesis. 6. Write the formula for respiration. 7. Why can it be considered the reverse of photosynthesis? 8. Using the terms autotrophs and Iheterotrophs describe which organisms use photosynthesis and who uses respiration. 9. Why do you think photosynthesis is also called primary production? 10. What two elements are two of the most important nutrients by organisms? 4.2 Living Machinery 11. How are prokaryotes different from eukaryotes? 12. Describe the function of the following organelles? Nucleus, Ribosomes, Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi Apparatus, Mitochondria, Cell Wall, Chloroplasts, Flagella and cilia 13. Describe the levels of organization from a single cell to an entire organism. 14. Describe the levels of organization from a single organism to the entire biosphere. 4.3 Challenges of Life in the Sea 15. What is homeostasis? 16. What are the two main challenges marine organisms face while trying to maintain homeostasis in the ocean? 17. What is diffusion? 18. Why is the cell membrane considered selectively permeable? 19. What is osmosis? 20. What will happen to a cell if the outside water has more or less salt than it does? 21. How do cells move materials in or out of the cell against a concentration gradient (against the normal flow of diffusion)? 22. What is the difference between an osmoconformer and an osmoregulator? 23. How do saltwater and freshwater fishes deal water exchange due to osmosis? 24. What happens to an organism’s metabolism when the temperature goes up or down? 25. Compare an ectotherm to an endotherm. Give an example of each. 26. Compare an poikilotherm to an homeotherm. Give an example of each. 4.4 Perpetuating Life 27. How do cells reproduce? 28. What is the difference between asexual and sexual reproduction? Give an example of each. 29. What are the pros and cons of asexual and sexual reproduction? 30. Describe how meiosis and fertilization take chromosomes from both parents, yet keep the total number of chromosomes the same. 4.5 The Diversity of Life in the Sea 31. Describe natural selection in your own words. 32. What is a species? 33. How is a scientific name created? 34. What are the eight levels of classification; from domain to species? 35. Explain the three domain system of classification.