Introduction to Management

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Introduction to
Management
Chapter 1
Topics
What is management?
What do managers do?
What challenges do managers
at different levels face?
Management is…
Getting work
done through
others
1
Efficiency
Effectiveness
Management Functions
Classical
Management Functions
Updated
Management Functions
Planning
Making Things Happen
Controlling
Meeting the Competition
Organizing
Organizing People,
Projects, and Processes
Leading
Leading
2
Levels of Management
Top Level Management
Middle Level Management
First-Line
Management
3
CEO
COO
CIO
General Mgr
Plant Mgr
Regional Mgr
Office Manager
Shift Supervisor
Department Manager
Team Leader
Top Managers
Responsible for…
Creating a context for change
Developing attitudes of commitment
and ownership in employees
Creating a positive organizational
culture through language and action
Monitoring their business environments
3.1
Middle Managers
Responsible for…
Setting objectives consistent with top
management goals, planning strategies
Coordinating and linking groups,
departments, and divisions
Monitoring and managing the performance
of subunits and managers who report to them
3.2
Implementing the changes or strategies
generated by top managers
First-Line Managers
Responsible for…
Managing the performance of
entry-level employees
Teaching entry-level employees
how to do their jobs
Making schedules and operating plans based on
middle management’s intermediate-range plans
3.3
Team Leaders
Responsible for…
Facilitating team performance
Managing external relationships
Facilitating internal team relationships
3.4
Managerial Roles
Interpersonal
Informational
Decisional
Figurehead
Monitor
Entrepreneur
Leader
Disseminator
Disturbance
Handler
Liaison
Spokesperson
Resource
Allocator
Negotiator
4
Adapted from Exhibit 1.3
H. Mintzberg, The Nature of Managerial Work (New York: Harper & Row, 1973)
What Challenges Do Managers
Face?
Developing the appropriate skills
for managerial work
Avoiding “typical” managerial
mistakes
Making the transition from individual
contributor to manager
What Companies Look for in
Managers
5
Technical Skills
Human Skill
Conceptual Skill
Motivation to Manage
Theory X and Y
Managerial beliefs or philosophies with
regard to how to manage others
Includes assumptions about human
behavior as well as what makes a
business successful
Our beliefs have consequences on how
we manage others and the expectations
they have of us
Theory X
Management's only responsibility is to
improve the company's "bottom line."
The employees of an organization are
tools to be used to meet this goal.
People are basically unwilling to work in
the best interests of the company, cannot
handle responsibility, and must be tightly
controlled, prodded, and punished to get
their work done.
Theory Y
Management should create conditions that
enable and encourage employees to attain their
own goals by working toward the goals of the
organization.
Employees are inherently ready to accept
responsibility, do a good job, and work in the
best interests of the company.
It is management's responsibility to create the
conditions that will allow employees to develop
their fullest potential.
Mistakes Managers Make
1. Insensitive to others
2. Cold, aloof, arrogant
3. Betrayal of trust
4. Overly ambitions
5. Specific performance problems with the business
6. Overmanaging: unable to delegate or build a team
7. Unable to staff effectively
8. Unable to think strategically
9. Unable to adapt to boss with different style
10. Overdependent on advocate or mentor
6
Adapted from Exhibit 1.5
McCall & Lombardo, “What Makes a Top Executive?” Psychology Today, Feb 1983
The First Year Management
Transition
Initial Assumptions
7
Reality
 Exercise formal authority
 Cannot be “bossy”
 Manage tasks,
not people
 Manage people,
not tasks
 Help employees
do their jobs
 Coach employee
performance
 Hire and fire
 Fast pace,
heavy workload
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