Chapter II Literature Review In this Chapter, the researcher will discuss the literature in a given area of study. This chapter is more than an annotated bibliography or a summary, because the researcher is organizing her sources in terms of the overall relationship to her own project. The aim of this chapter is to give the writer idea of the previous study of the research. The researcher will use thematic review on this chapter. The study of collocation is a common and important study in languages especially English language. There are so many researches are done by other researchers about this study. Some of them researched about Grammatical and Lexical English Collocations: Some possible problems to Indonesian learners of English (Moehkardi), some researched about Long-Span Collocation and Its Application in Information Retrieval (Vechtomova), some did researched about High Frequency Collocations and Second Language Learning (Durrant), etc. From all these previous studies that have been found, the present researcher will be able to get enough sources for her study. ‘You shall know a word by the company it keeps’ (Firth). J. R Firth is considered as a father of collocation because he is the one who bring the word “collocation” into linguistic sense. Talking about Collocation is always related to the grammar and lexicon (Moehkardi, 54). Many words that are combined with verbs can be used either preposition or adverb, for example, above, across, along, off, behind, up, etc (Thomson and Martinet, 82). For the additional knowledge on this term, here is an explanation about collocation: In English, as in other languages, there are many fixes, identifiable, non- idiomatic phrases and constructions. Such groups of words are called recurrent combinations, or collocations. Collocations fall into two major groups: Grammatical Collocations and Lexical Collocations (Benson, Benson and Ilson, 57) This research topic about collocation and Indonesian learners is almost similarly the same as the one who has been researched by Moehkardi. However, there are differences in this research and Moehkardi’s. The difference is the main purpose of the research. Moehkardi’s research is mostly focusing on the possible problems occurred to the Indonesian learners and the types of collocations themselves while this ongoing research is focusing on the reasons of why the problems occurred. The reasons will vary based on the subjects’ feedback. However, basically the reason is on the linguistics such as the subjects’ first language acquisitions, semantics, and psycholinguistics terms. Semantics term The study of meaning is one of the reasons of why Indonesian people make mistakes in English collocations. As we know the communication happened when the receivers get the right idea of what the speaker said (Hoffman, 4). People can communicate when they understand each other. This happens if both of them are from the same language background or at least speak the same languages. Therefore, now we can see a language as a bridge connecting a realm of sounds and realms of meanings (9). In these sentences “If you buy a big car you’ll have to have to spend more money” and “If you buy a big car you’ll have to use more money.” Semantically they have the same meanings which the activity of lessen the amount of money. However, the second sentence is using the wrong collocation. This is happened to Indonesian English learners when they try to produce words. They depend too much on the semantics meaning where they find them just right and understandable. It is a very crucial mistake which is often being ignored by the non- native speakers of the language. Second Language Acquisition For adult second language learners (L2ers), the errors such as grammatical errors, pronunciation errors, morphological errors cannot be avoided. L2 errors may be fossilize so that no amount of teaching or correction can undo them. Unlike L1 acquisition, which can be learned successfully since young, adults’ ability in learning L2 can be varied. Some people are excellent language learners and some are slow learners (Fromkin, Rodman, Hyams, Collins, Amberer, 338). This is also happened to the Indonesian English learners. Even though Indonesian learners acquire their L1 which is Indonesian, not all of them can completely master the English language as their L2. This theory is very clearly showed how the Indonesian English learners make collocation errors. Moreover, the errors made are not surprising for them. They are considered as normal errors. We cannot suppress our ability to use the rules of our language (340). Indonesian has a similar pattern with English where the pattern is SVO. For example: I(S) cook (V) rice(O). (English) Saya(S) memasak(V) nasi(O). (Indonesian) This similar pattern makes Indonesian English learners easier in learning the language. However, in learning collocations or phrasal verbs, they need to make an effort in order to memorize or get used to the words. Unlike L2, L1 has acquired those words and used them in everyday life. The mistakes on collocation are likely occurred than the mistakes in grammatical forms. When Indonesian English learners have not got used to the collocation this mistakes such as “She becomes crazy” made according to their L1 knowledge “Dia menjadi gila”. This mistakes sound just fine to the non- native speakers, however, to the native- speakers it is sound weird. It is supposed to be “She is going crazy.” Therefore, collocation is one of the obstacle for Indonesian English learners in mastering the language. Psycholinguistics approaches Psycholinguistics is the psychology of language, including language acquisition by children, the mental processes underlying adult comprehension and production of speech, language disorders, etc (Farlex, The Free Online Dictionary). In this research, the researcher will focus more about the mental processes underlying adult comprehension and production of speech. This psycholinguistics approaches is one of the approaches that affects Indonesian English learners in making collocation errors. Psycholinguists conclude a certain conclusion by reflecting on what human know of words and how they operate which is called lexical competence (Field, 10). Then, we start by assuming that each language user has a personal vocabulary store or lexicon, from which they select words for use and to who they refer their words to (Field, 10). There are four levels in producing words. They are: 1. Message level, where the message is in process 2. Functional level, where the lexical role is chosen and been given the message and syntactic function 3. Positional level, where the constituent is made and the affixation is done and 4. Phonology level, where the words phonology structure is created (Dardjowidjojo, 117). The researcher assumes that the errors in collocation are related to this process of producing words especially in the second level where the lexical role is chosen. This is also related to the subjects’ language acquisition. For example: “Have you made your homework?” Make Homework is wrong collocation. However, when the lexicon meaning is created, the subject knows it as “make homework” because of the first language acquisition. If the sentence is translated to the original language of the subject, the sentence will be “Sudah buat PR belum?” The suitable collocation should be “Do homework”. Therefore, even though the sentence “Have you made your homework?” is grammatically correct and semantically acceptable, It sounds unnatural to the native speakers.