The Lexical Approach and its classroom implications, or the sad story of the dead rabbit IATEFL-H Conference Eger October 2012 Judit Révész [email protected] Language as a huge substitution table… Noun/ auxiliary verb pronoun Relative Noun/ auxiliary verb pronoun pronoun MAY SHE YOU I BRAD PITT TOM & JERRY CINDERELLA WE WE MAY WILL SHOULD MUST ‘LL WHEN SEE KNOW DECIDE SWIM WHAT WHY HOW WHO I HE WILL SHOULD GO COOK DO THEY MUST SING BILL ‘LL HANG SUSAN CAN I’LL SEE WHAT I CAN DO. What is a collocation? “Collocation is the readily observable phenomenon whereby certain words co-occur in natural text with greater than random frequency. Instead of words, we consciously try to think of collocations, and to present these in expressions. Rather than trying to break things into ever smaller pieces, there is a conscious effort to see things in larger, more holistic, ways.” (Michael Lewis, (1997). Implementing the lexical approach: Putting theory into practice. Hove, England: Language Teaching Publications.) Density of collocations 2 “Collocation is the readily observable phenomenon whereby certain words co-occur in natural text with greater than random frequency. Instead of words, we consciously try to think of collocations, and to present these in expressions. Rather than trying to break things into ever smaller pieces, there is a conscious effort to see things in larger, more holistic, ways.” 50-80% of text is made up of chunks! The reason why you’re so fluent is that you have a great amount of overlearnt chunks at your disposal! Colligation is the way a word regularly co-occurs with a (grammatical) pattern, the word and its grammatical environment. Each word has its own “grammar”. OWN = SAJÁT Hunglish: *He’s only 19 but he drives an own car. *She passed the driving test.” *They suggested to go somewhere else. Collocational competence Is it just an issue for advanced learners? *She listens the classical music. *They go to home. *He plays on the violin. *My niece is one, she can go but she cannot speak. *He very likes football. „Like slow-release aspirin, (chunks) surrender their internal structure slowly, over time” (Scott Thornbury) These chunks become the raw data by which learners perceive patterns of language traditionally thought of as grammar. Only a minority of spoken sentences are entirely novel creations. Implications for language teaching 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Translation is out Vocabulary lists with L1 equivalents are out Value of learner creativity is questioned. Huge amounts of authentic input Awareness raising Rote learning is back Teacher as language model and input provider Working/ Playing with language corpora e.g. BNC and concordances Rote learning is back! Collocations memory, jigsaw Gapped reading Correcting text Reconstructing text to make it personally meaningful Dictation – key words Copying – off-the wall-dictation Drills Learning by heart, songs, poetry, tongue twisters, proverbs, etc. Mini narratives – 5 nouns 5 verbs Recording formats, 5-5-1, Lobster Grouping collocations (have, put) Re-telling Retell the story in your own words! = Retell their story in your words. Retell your story in their words! I have a close friend called Irene. I’ve known her for about 15 years now. We met at work – she was a colleague of mine at the company where I used to work. We get on very well although we don’t have a lot in common – we have quite different interests. We don’t work together any more, and when I changed jobs we lost touch for a couple of years. But now we keep in touch regularly. (New English File Intermediate, OUP) I have a close friend called Irene. I’ve known her 1……. 15 years now. We met at 2…….– she was a colleague 3……. at the company where I used 4………. We get 5…………. although we don’t have a lot in 6…… – we have quite different 7……….. We don’t work together any 8………, and when I changed jobs we lost 9……… for a couple of years. But now we 10…….. in touch regularly. TOUCH in the British National Corpus I did not want to touch her. staying in touch is essential. I don't wanna lose touch had been out of touch since with them now. Clare kept in touch with Annabel. He will touch everyone on the raw’ when the South Africans touch down at Kingston Airport a touch of elegance. the first report trying to get in touch? a touch more deeply It was always touch and go He has been in touch with Greenalls Yes touch wood. Collocation domino/memory TRAFFIC JAM CYCLE LANE PEDESTRIAN AREA RUSH HOUR PARKING LOT Storing/revising vocabulary Catch the Miss the Get off the Get on the Take the BUS Storing/revising vocabulary LANE TIMETABLE BUS TERMINAL ROUTE PASS VERY ABSOLUTELY CLEVER BRILLIANT DISAPPOINTING DISASTROUS IMPRESSIVE SUPERB ENJOYABLE HILARIOUS STUPID IDIOTIC The sad story of the dead rabbit The sad story of the dead rabbit Catching the bus Making friends Fan club Half brother Toasting the bride SUMMARY Don’t fabricate, imitate! Thank you for your attention! Have a good day!