The First World War 1914-1918 Copy the following EQ on Page 1 What were the causes of World War I and the reasons for the U.S. entering the war? Causes of WWI (1914-1918) What were the causes of WWI? Militarism When countries compete for bigger/better military Leads to competition and bad feelings Causes of WWI (1914-1918) What were the causes of WWI? Nationalism Pride in one’s country Want to defend their country in time of war Think they are better than others, may attack other countries Germany was allied with AustriaHungary while Russia, France and Britain were partners Causes of WWI (1914-1918) What were the causes of WWI? System of alliances TRIPLE Two or more countries make ENTENTE an agreement to support Two countries unite to take over another When one country starts a war, FRANCE BRITAIN RUSSIA the others are pulled in The Triple Entente, later known as the Allies, consisted of France, Britain, and Russia The Triple Alliance, later known as the Central Powers, consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy (Soon joined by the Ottoman Empire) Causes of WWI (1914-1918) What were the causes of WWI? Imperialism One country controls another Country taking over thinks they are superior Countries taken over want freedom The Spark: An Assassination What sparked the fighting? The Balkan region was considered “the powder keg of Europe” due to competing interests in the area. Russia wanted access to the Mediterranean Sea. Germany wanted a rail link to the Ottoman Empire. Austria-Hungary, which had taken control of Bosnia in 1878, accused Serbia of subverting its rule over Bosnia. In June of 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian throne, was gunned down by a Serbia radical igniting a diplomatic crisis. The Fighting Begins What was the Alliance system? The Alliance system pulled one nation after another into the conflict – The Great War had begun. On August 3, 1914, Germany invaded Belgium, following a strategy known as the Schlieffen Plan. This plan called for a quick strike through Belgium to Paris, France. Next, Germany would attack Russia The plan was designed to prevent a two-front war for Germany. The Schliefflen Plan Answer the following on page 1 in 4-5 sentences, use two items of historical proof (highlight) and explain your proof (underline). Why did World War I break out in Europe? Copy the following EQ on Page 4 What were the causes of World War I and the reasons for the U.S. entering the war? The War Becomes A Stalemate What was trench warfare? Unable to save Belgium, the Allies retreated to the Marne River in France where they halted the German advance in September of 1914. Both sides dug in for a long siege. By the spring of 1915, two parallel systems of deep trenches crossed France from Belgium to Switzerland. Between enemy trenches was “no man’s land” – an area marked with shell craters and filled with barbed wire. British soldiers standing in mud The conditions in these trenches were horrific. Aside from the fear of bombardment, soldiers also had to contend with mud, flooding, lice, vermin, and disease associated with living in such an unhealthy environment. The War Becomes A Stalemate What was trench warfare? Gas attacks were common features of trench life and often caused blindness and lung disease During the First Battle of the Somme—which began on July 1, 1916, and lasted until midNovember—the British suffered an enormous number of casualties (60,000 on the first day). Final casualties for this phase of the war totaled 1.2 million, yet only 7 miles of ground was gained. This bloody trench warfare, in which armies fought for mere yards of ground, lasted for three years. Americans Question Neutrality Why did we want to remain neutral? French propaganda poster portrayed the Germans as inhuman. In 1914, most Americans saw no reason to join a struggle 3,000 miles away – they wanted neutrality. Some did not want their sons to experience the horror of warfare. Some German-Americans supported Germany in World War I. However, many Americans felt closer to the British because of a shared ancestry and language. Most importantly, American economic interests were far stronger with the Allies. Americans Question Neutrality Why did we want to remain neutral? The November 1916 election pitted incumbent Democrat Woodrow Wilson vs. Republican candidate Supreme Court justice Charles Evans Hughes. Wilson won a close election using the slogan, “He kept us out of war.” That slogan would prove ironic because within a few months the United States would be embroiled in World War I. US Joins the War Why did the US join the war? Closer ties with allies – US, Great Britain, and France all shared same democratic political system, common language, and history. However, German Americans supported Germany. German actions and Allied propaganda – American newspapers ran stories and pictures depicting German atrocities. Zimmerman Telegram – from the German Foreign Minister to Mexico, promised the return of lost territory if they helped Germany. Intercepted by Britain, US enraged. US Joins the War Why did the US join the war? Freedom of the seas – main reason for US entry British Blockade – prevent food and arms getting to Germany. Germany too weak to break blockade. Germany retaliated by sinking merchant ships carrying goods to Great Britain. Sinking of the Lusitania Sussex Pledge – Germany attack a French ferry killing 50, Wilson angered, Germany promised not to attack liners without prior warning or help to passengers. Unrestricted Sub warfare – Germany (starving) announced it would sink all ships in blockade area, violates freedom of the seas. When US ships were attacked Wilson asked Congress to declare war. (German Proclamation 1915) US Joins the War Why did the US join the war? May 7, 1915 United States involvement in World War I was hastened by the Lusitania disaster. The Lusitania was a British passenger liner that carried 1,198 persons on a fateful trip on May 7, 1915. A German U-boat sank the British passenger liner killing all aboard including 128 American tourists. The Germans claimed the ship was carrying Allied ammunition. Americans were outraged and public opinion turned against Germany and the Central Powers. Answer the following on page 3 in 4-5 sentences, use two items of historical proof (highlight) and explain your proof (underline). Could the United States have avoided entering World War I? Copy the following EQ on the bottom half of Page 3 What were the causes of World War I and the reasons for the U.S. entering the war? US Joins the War Why did the US join the war? Zimmerman Telegram Zimmerman note intercepted by a British agent and decoded Important New Weapons What was the impact of new weapons? Machine Guns: Guns could now fire 600 rounds per minute. The Tank: New steel tanks ran on caterpillar treads. Airplanes: Early dogfights resembled duals, however by 1918 the British had a fleet of planes that could deliver bombs. Poison Gas: Mustard gas was used to subdue the enemy. Important New Weapons What was the impact of new weapons? Howitzers Flame throwers Torpedoes U-boats Phosphorus grenades Field phones Search lights Gas masks Camouflage Railroad guns Blimps Answer the question at the top of page 3 List 2 weapons that made this a new kind of war and explain how they were used? What were the reasons for the U.S. joining WWI? Copy the following EQ on the bottom half of Page 7 How did America respond at home to entering World War I? America Declares War How did the US get into the War? On April 2, 1917, senators, representatives, ambassadors, members of the Supreme Court, and other guests crowded into the Capital building to hear Wilson deliver his declaration of war. Wilson said, “The world must be made safe for democracy.” Congress passed the resolution a few days later. America Declares War How did the US get into the War? America was not ready for war. Only 200,000 men were in service when war was declared, so Congress passed the Selective Service Act in May of 1917. By the end of 1918, 24 million had signed up and almost 3 million were called to duty. About 2 million American troops reached Europe. Highlights of the War What were the Highlights of the War? American Expeditionary Force – under the command of General John J. Pershing Insisted American soldiers be well trained before being sent to the western front Demanded American forces fight together Wilson refused to allow African Americans to serve, however served under French command. Answer the following on page 5 in 4-5 sentences, use two items of historical proof (highlight) and explain your proof (underline). Highlights of the War What were the Highlights of the War? Battle of Argonne Forest – greatest American battle of 1918 Terrain was steep, concrete walls, traps for tanks, miles of barbed wire The AEF assembled 600,000 men and shattered German defenses Opened a hole in German lines Final and most important battle of the AEF Highlights of the War What were the Highlights of the War? Alvin York Avoided military service as a conscientious objector Drafted at age 29 – underprivileged and undereducated Battle of Argonne with only a pistol and rifle he killed 25 Germans and captured 132 prisoners. Received Medal of Honor America Mobilizes How did we respond at home? 1. Selective Service Act- May 1917 Required men to register with the government in order to be randomly selected for military service 24 million men registered and 2 million fought in WWI 400,000 African Americans fought in segregated units Women were able to serve in the Army of Corps of Nurses 2. Mass Production Needed food, equipment, weapons and especially transportation The gov. gave special privileges to shipyard workers Draft exemptions America Mobilizes How did we respond at home? 3. American Convoy System Needed to a way get past German U-boats This system had heavy destroyers escort merchant ships across the Atlantic It worked only 637 lives were lost to U-boat attacks 4. Americans had to get use to the new way of fighting Doughboys, American infantrymen, were shocked by the new weapons and tactics Tanks, airplanes, bombs, poisonous gas, machine guns War brought new hazards and injuries “Shell Shock” - a complete emotional collapse Trench Foot- only solution was to amputate the foot or toes Poisonous Gases- blinded, burned and killed America Mobilizes How did we respond at home? Although we were only in the war for a year, it had a great impact on the homefront War Industries Board- helped with mass production of war supplies Liberty Bonds- savings bonds sold to help finance the war Propaganda- to encourage buying bonds or serving Victory Gardens – people were asked to grow their own vegetables and to adjust to days like “meatless” Tuesday Answer the following on page 7 in 4-5 sentences, use two items of historical proof (highlight) and explain your proof (underline). Copy the following EQ on Page 10 How did America respond at home to entering World War I? America Mobilizes How did we respond at home? The U.S. had two major tasks: raising money and convincing the public to support the war. The U.S. spent $35.5 billion on the war effort. The government raised about 1/3 of that through an income tax and “sin” taxes. The rest was raised through war bonds sold to the public (Liberty Loans & Victory Loans) America Mobilizes How did we respond at home? To conserve food, Wilson set up the Food Administration (FA) which declared one day a week “meatless,” another “sweetless,” and two days “wheatless.” Homeowners planted “victory gardens” in their yards and school children worked after school growing tomatoes and cucumbers in public parks. Farmers increased production by almost 30% by adding 40 million acres of farmland Attacks on Civil Liberties How did we violate civil liberties? 1. Anti-immigration HysteriaThe nasty attacks were mainly against German immigrants Many lost their jobs Schools stopped teaching German Some resorted to violence 2. Espionage and Sedition Acts- June 1917 A person could be fined up to $10,000 and sentenced to 20 years in jail for interfering with the war effort or by being “disloyal” to the govt. 2,000 ppl were prosecuted for opposing the war Mainly targeted socialists and labor leaders Eugene Debs was sentenced to 10 yrs America Mobilizes How did we respond at home? Schenck v. U.S. 1919 Charles Schenk – socialist party, felt drafting soldiers was unfair use of gov. authority Convicted for Distributing literature encouraging men to resist draft Said violated his first amend right Supreme court argued there are limits to free speech – set standard of limits on free speech Germany Collapses How did WWI come to an end? The addition of the American troops was too much for Germany to handle On November 11, 1918 Germany signed the Armistice (cease fire) Eleventh day, eleventh hour in eleventh month (Nov. 11) 22 million people were killed total 48,000 US soldiers were killed in battle, 62,000 killed from disease and 200,000 wounded Damages estimated at 338 billion dollars Wilson’s Plan How did WWI come to an end? Met at the Palace of Versailles on January 1918 Allies met to decide the peace terms Central Powers and Russia were not invited Wilson presented his plan called the “Fourteen Points” on January 18, 1918 Goal was to eliminate the causes of WWI Wilson’s Plan How did WWI come to an end? Freedom of the Seas- all nations should have equal access to water trade routes Self-Determination- culturally/ethnically similar people should choose how to form their own nation and gov’t Mandate System- process for Allied powers to oversee transition of former colonies and imperial possessions to independent nations League of Nations- international organization to address diplomatic issues without going to war, defend each other if needed – US and Russia didn‘t join. Answer the following on page 9 in 4-5 sentences, use two items of historical proof (highlight) and explain your proof (underline). Copy the following EQ on Page 12 Why were the peace treaties ending World War I so controversial? Wilson’s Plan How did WWI come to an end? Wilson’s focus was the Fourteen Points, while GB and France wanted to punish Germany What was included in the treaty: 9 new nations created (Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, etc.) Germany stripped of its army, forced to accept the war guilt clause- accept blame for starting the war Germany required to pay $33 billion in reparationspayment of war damages League of Nations –severely weakened when several major nations failed to join. Wilson’s Plan How did WWI come to an end? The treaty humiliated Germany and they remained bitter and angry Italy and Japan are angry b/c they felt like they should have been given more land Russia was left out of the talks New communist gov’t under Vladimir Lenin was determined to get taken land back Wilson’s Plan How did WWI come to an end? When Wilson returned home many were unsatisfied with the peace treaty Democrats supported the treaty (Wilson was a Dem) Republicans were split- strong isolationist feeling “Irreconcilables”- opposed it outright Revisionists- opposed mainly the League of Nations Wilson’s Plan How did WWI come to an end? Wilson refused to compromise on the League Wilson traveled throughout the nation explaining why the US should join the League On Oct. 2, 1919 Wilson suffered a stroke and was weakened Senate voted against the treaty The US never joined the League and decided to sign a separate treaty with Germany in 1921 The Legacy of the War What was the impact of WWI? 22 million dead, more than half civilians. An additional 20 million wounded. At home, the war strengthened both the military and the power of the government. The propaganda campaign provoked powerful fears in society. For many countries the war created political instability and violence that lasted for years Russia established the first Communist state during the war Americans called World War I, “The War to end all Wars” --- however unresolved issues would eventually drag the U.S. into an even deadlier conflict. The Legacy of the War What was the impact of WWI? Henry Cabot Lodge - Republican Senator- opposed to the part of the treaty dealing with the League of Nations Argued that the US would lose the right to declare war for itself, and instead, be dragged into future European conflicts by the LoN The Legacy of the War What was the impact of WWI? Americans turned their attention towards home – isolationism – separating themselves from other countries, affairs Rejected Treaty of Versailles Refusal to join Lon Higher tariffs Restricting European immigration Answer the following on page 11 in 4-5 sentences, use two items of historical proof (highlight) and explain your proof (underline).