Chapter 7 section 3 Pgs 3474-234234 Consider the following changes that occurred in the United States in the late 19th century: • Increases in immigration • Widespread industrialization • Improvements in agricultural technology What was one result of these developments during this time period? A. the growth of large cities B. the decline of labor unions C. the spread of plantation agriculture D. the construction of interstate highways Period of Greed and self- indulgence coined by Mark Twain Era marred by rise of political machines and corruption Represented the growing gap between the few rich people and the many poor people A political machine is a power structure in rapidly growing cities that had limited or insufficient government. Offered services and favors to voters and businesses in exchange for political and financial support. Political Boss- controlled access to municipal jobs, business licenses, and influenced the courts. Immigrants would help political bosses get re-elected in exchange for assistance attaining citizenship. City Bosscontrolled all the political activity in the city Ward Boss-Secured vote for city boss by doing favors or providing services for the poor. Local Precinct workers (Captains)- Gained support on a city block or in a neighborhood Once a political machine got into office it would take advantage of the opportunities for GRAFT…The illegal use of political influence for personal gain Examples: Getting a city job for a “friend” Kickbacks Favors to allow illegal activity…on the take. Until 1890 police forces were hired and fired by the political bosses making it easy to get away with shady dealings. William Tweed…head of Tammany Hall Tammany Hall –New York City’s most powerful and corrupt political machine. Ex. New York County Courthouse scandal Thomas Nast- political cartoonist that created public awareness about the corruption in Tammany Hall Patronage(spoils system)-giving govt. jobs to people who assisted with getting a candidate elected. After Garfield’s assassination the Pendleton Service Act was passes under Chester Arthur that made appointments to federal jobs through a merit system of performance and examination. Made public admin jobs more efficient and honest. Rutherford B. Hayes • President whose election ended Reconstruction and led to the start of civil service reform. James Garfield • Ohioan who supported reform of Patronage, was elected president, and was assassinated. Chester A. Arthur • Vice-President who took over after the above president was killed. He became a reformer. Passed Pendleton C.S.A. Grover Cleveland • Only president to serve nonconsecutive terms. He wanted to reduce tariffs. Benjamin Harrison • Won Presidential election with promise to raise tariffs • Received financial support from big businesses Why did political machine politics become common in cities in the late 19th century? What government problems arose as a result of patronage? What were the views of Grover Cleveland and Benjamin Harrison on tariffs?