Models of Urban Structure • Cities exhibit functional structure – Central business district (CBD) – Central city – Suburb • North American cities? – 3 models Louis Wirth • Urban Settings Have 3 Characteristics: 1. Large size: Won’t know most people living in a city. 2. High Density: each person has a role essential for the urban system to function smoothly, people compete for survival in limited space. 3. Social Heterogeneity: -people pursue an unusual profession -people pursue a different sexual orientation -people pursue cultural interests Urban Physical Characteristics 1. Legal Boundary: A city is an urban settlement that has legally been incorporated into an independent, self-governing unit. 2. Continuously Built up Area: An urbanized area is a central city plus its contiguous built-up suburbs, pop exceeds 1000 persons per sq. mile. 3. Functional Area: zone of influence extends beyond legal boundaries and adjacent built-up jurisdictions METROPOLITAN STATISITICAL AREA (MSA)-central city with a pop of 50,000 -county within which the city is located -adjacent counties with a high pop density and a large % of residents working in the central city. Smaller urban areas are called MICROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREA 10,000-50,000 Some MSAs overlap and this is called a megalopolis: BOSWASH CORRIDOR -southern California -German Ruhr -southern Great Lakes -Japan’s Tokaido -Rabdstad in the Netherlands 4. A city has more functional specialization than a town and a larger hinterland and greater centrality. - a well-defined commercial center -a central business district -suburbs (subsidiary urban areas surrounding and connected to the central city.) Many suburbs are residential but some have their own commercial centers or shopping malls. Concentric Zone Model: A city grows outward from a central area in a series of concentric rings Use census tracts, 5,000 people in neighborhood boundaries. These tell us where people tend to lives. • E.W. Burgess 1. non-residential activities 2. Industry & poorer quality housing (immigrants new to the city live here 1st) 3. Stable working class 4. Middle class Sector Model: Homer Hoyt A city grows in a series of sectors. Certain areas are more attractive to certain activities, by environmental factors, or by chance. As a city grows, activities expand in sectors out from the CBD. Industrial and retailing are in sectors by good transportation lines. Multiple Nuclei: C.D. Harris and E.L. Ulman A city is a complex structure that includes more than one center around which activities revolve. Some activities are attracted to particular nodes while others avoid them. Ex: Airport=hotels & warehouses Ex: University=well-educated residents, book stores and pizza joints. Modeling the North American City • Urban realms • Early post-war period, reduced interaction between the central city and suburban cities • Outer cities became more self-sufficient Models of Urban Structure • Outer city growth since 1960s • By 1973, American suburbs surpassed central cities in total employment • Outer cities = “edge cities” – Equal partners in city shaping processes a. Industrial factories and complexes b. Hotels c. Amusement parks d. Malls Tyson’s Corner Modeling the Modern Latin American City • Law of the Indies 1575 • Latin American cities were designed after European cities, explorers came from Portugal and Spain • Centered on a church and central plaza Squatter Cities Characteristics of Squatter Cities • Housing materials are collected from available resources: corrugated tin • Little sanitation • No running water • No Cooking facilities • Illegal hookup to electricity, if any • No political voice • Lack of social services Spatial distribution of Squatter Cities • On the periphery of the cities in LDCs around the world. • In Europe and Latin America the rich choose to live in the culturally-rich inner city, the opposite is sometimes true in North American cities Ted Talks on Squatter Cities http://www.ted.com/talks/stewart_brand_on_squatter_cities.htm l http://www.ted.com/talks/robert_neuwirth_on_our_shadow_citie s.html Modeling the Modern Southeast Asian City Modeling the Modern Subsaharan African City Resources • • • • • • • • De Blij, Harm, J. 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