Leadership in Organizations Perspectives on Effective Leaders Behavior (Ch 3) Presented by K.C.TAI During the past five decades, hundreds of studies were conducted using methods to investigate how leader behavior affects subordinate satisfaction and performance. Much of the research on leadership behavior has followed the pattern set by the research at Ohio State University and the University of Michigan. BEHAVIOR DESCRIPTION QUESTIONNAIRES 1. The Ohio State Leadership Studies (1) identify categories of leadership behavior: Consideration & Initiating Structure (2) develop questionnaires: LBDQ: The Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire SBD: The Supervisory Behavior Description LOQ: The Leader Opinion Questionnaire LBDQ XII: The Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire Form XII (3) Results from the Survey Research They found that increased consideration or decreased initiating structure have no effect on turnover or grievance rate. These two categories are weak and inconsistent for most criteria of leadership effectiveness. Limitations of the questionnaires (1)Response Bias: Response bias may attribute desirable behavior to a leader who is perceived to be effective, even though the behavior was not actually observed. (2)Ambiguous items: The use of ambiguous items that can be interpreted in different ways by different respondents (3)Interpreting Causality in survey studies: There is often more than one plausible interpretation of causality, and more than one form of causality may occur at the same time. 2. The Michigan Leadership Studies focus on the identification of relationships among leader behavior, group processes, and measures of group performance. (1) The studies found that three types of leadership behavior differentiated between effective and ineffective manager a. Task- Oriented Behavior b. Relations-Oriented Behavior c. Participative Leadership (2)Peer Leadership a. Among the Michigan leadership studies, Bowers and Seashore were the first researchers to survey peer leadership. b. Group effectiveness will depend more on the overall quality of leadership in a work unit than on who actually performs the functions. LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS ON TASK AND RELATIONS BEHAVIOR 1. This research demonstrated that causality operates in both directions, from behavior to outcomes and vice versa. 2. Limitations of laboratory experiments (1)They are unrealistic, which makes it difficult to generalize the findings to employee in real organizations. (2)Only a small number of organizations have been used to investigate the effects of leadership behavior. CRITICAL INCIDENT RESEARCH 1. This method is based on the assumption that respondents such as subordinates, peers, and superiors can provide descriptions of effective behavior for a particular type of manager. 2. Limitations of critical incident research: (1) The respondents may be biased in their perception of what is effective, and report incidents that are consistent with their stereotypes or implicit theories about effective leaders. (2). It is difficult to compare the categories across studies with different types of leaders. HIGH-HIGH LEADER RESEARCH 1. Blake and Mouton (1964) developed the managerial grid theory: Effective managers have a high concern for both people and production. 2. Misumi & Peterson (1985) developed PM Leadership Theory: Effective leaders are high in both performance behavior and maintenance behavior. 3. Most theorists generally agreed that both task and relations behaviors are important for effective leadership, they differed in their assumptions about the way the two aspects of leadership behavior are related. LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR TAXONOMIES 1.Taxonomies that differ in purpose can be expected to have somewhat different constructs. Even with the same purpose is the possibility that behavior constructs can be formulated at different levels of abstraction or generality. 2.Methods used to develop behavior taxonomies. (1) Factor analysis---- by examining the pattern of covariance among behavior items on a behavior description questionnaire describing actual manager (2) Judgmental classification---- by having judges group behavior examples according to perceived similarity in content or purpose (3) Theoretical-deductive approach----by deduction from theory 3. An integrating framework for classifying behavior Some recent research suggests a threedimensional taxonomy to group specific behaviors into general categories. Effective leaders must be flexible and adaptive in their behavior as conditions change. SPECIFIC TASK BEHAVIOR Planning: deciding about objectives, priorities, strategies, allocation of resources, assignment of responsibilities, scheduling of activities Clarifying: explaining job responsibilities, explaining rules and procedures, setting specific performance goals, and giving instructions in how to do a task. Monitoring: getting information needed to evaluate the operations of the work unit and the performance of individual subordinates. SPECIFIC RELATIONS BAHAVIOR Supporting: A manager shows consideration, acceptance, and concern for someone’s needs and feelings. Developing: To increase job-relevant skills and facilitate a person’s job adjustment and career advancement. Recognizing: giving praise and showing appreciation to others for effective performance, significant achievements, and important contributions to the organization. Thank You !!!