Research Data collection tool : Questionnaire(s)

Seminar on:
Questionnaire – Types of questions, Structured
and Unstructured questions, Cautions
regarding questions and questionnaires.
Presented by
Selvaraja, A.
Research Scholar
Dr. Y. Venkatesha
Associate Professor
DOS in Library and Information Science
University of Mysore, Manasagangothri
Mysore – 570 006
1. What is a questionnaire?
A questionnaire is a set of questions for gathering
information from individuals. You can administer
questionnaires by mail, telephone, using face-to-face
interviews, as handouts, or electronically (i.e., by e- mail
or through Web-based questionnaires).
A questionnaire is a series of questions asked to
individuals to obtain statistically useful information
about a given topic. When properly constructed and
responsibly administered, questionnaires become a vital
instrument by which statements can be made about
specific groups or people or entire populations.
2. Types of questionnaires and questions
Questionnaires can be paper-based, or electronic.
2.1 Structured questionnaires (Closed Ended
Questions) are based predominantly on closed questions
which produce data that can be analyzed quantitatively for
patterns and trends. The agenda is entirely predetermined
by the evaluator and provides little flexibility for
respondents to qualify their answers.
A closed question can be answered with either 'yes' or 'no'.
2.1.1 Yes/No Questions
1. Do you have a library membership card?
Yes ( )
No ( )
2.1.2 Multiple Choice Questions
What purpose do you visit the library? (Multiple choices)
( ) To read news papers
( ) To refer books
( ) To borrow and return books
( ) To brows Internet
2.1.3 Scaled questions - Responses are graded on a continuum
(example: rate the appearance of the product on a scale from 1 to 10,
with 10 being the most preferred appearance). Examples of types of
scales include the Likert scale, semantic differential scale, and rank-
order scale
A likert scale is commonly used in survey research it is
often used to measure respondents attitudes by asking the
extent to which they agree or disagree with a particular
question or statement.
Example: To what extent the information obtained from
the web based resources are useful to you? (Likert Scale)
Sl. No.
Somewhat satisfied
Extremely satisfied
Please rank the following web based resource usefulness in
order of preference (starting from 1 is least preferred and
10 is most preferred).
Sl. No.
Web based resources
Discussion forums
2.2 Unstructured questionnaires (Open-ended)
Non-structured questions, or open-ended questions,
are questions where there is no list of answer
choices from which to choose. Respondents are
simply asked to write their response to a question.
Here is an example:
An open question is likely to receive a long answer.
Example of a Non-structured Question
1. What are the facilities and services do you expect
from your library?
2. What are the benefits for automating a library
housekeeping functions?
It is best to use non-structured questions when you are
exploring new ideas and you don't really know what to
expect from the respondents.
2.3 Semi-structured questionnaires (Partially Structured
Question) take a mixed approach. In some situations, you
may have a partial list of answer choices, but you may still
have some doubt or uncertainty about other possible
responses. You can create a partially structured question
such as the following:
Example of a Partially Structured Question
What purpose do you use web based resources?
•For research work
•To write assignments
•To improve subject knowledge
•For the purpose of seminar presentation
Any other (Please specify): 1.________________
2. ________________
2.4 Contingency questions - A question that is answered
only if the respondent gives a particular response to a
previous question. This avoids asking questions of people
that do not apply to them.
1. Do you have computer knowledge?
Yes (
No (
2. If ‘yes’ how long have you been using?
•From last 6 months
•From last 1 year
•From last 2 years
•From last 3-4 years
3. Cautions regarding Questions and Questionnaires Construction
1. Question number
2. Order of Questions
3. Check the spellings of the question statements
4. Do not use offensive language
5. Avoid double-meaning Questions
6. If there are any difficult terms in the questionnaire than do explain
7. Avoid unnecessary questions
8. Know the academic and mental capacities of the target population
9. If there are certain personal or emotional questions ask them in the
middle or at the end
10.Don't ask for elaborate answers
11.Use polite language
12.Don't write questions that already contain the answer to the
13.Let the respondents know that their privacy will be ensured
Thank You…