1984-Inspired Timed Writing Prompt The Toulmin Model of Argument Examples Evidence Opening Writing H.L. Mencken (1880-1956) wrote, “The average man does not want to be free. He simply wants to be safe.” What are your first, knee-jerk, reactions and thoughts to this observation? Do you agree or disagree? Prompt American essayist and social critic H.L. Mencken (1880-1956) wrote, “The average man does not want to be free. He simply wants to be safe.” In a well-written essay examine the extent to which Mencken’s observation applies to contemporary society, supporting your position appropriate support. This is your next paper. We will outline it today and draft it next time. Plan This is not a “just go for it assignment.” In fact it is pretty methodical. We are going to use the Toulmin Model of Argument. It is used by SDSU and several other universities in and out of Cali. ________________________________ In the first move it involves: • Claims • Grounds • Warrants Claims: “So what is your point?” The CLAIM is the point (thesis). Example: You should send a birthday card to grandma, because she sent you one on your birthday. Example: I drove last time, so it is your turn this time. Claims • Claims are: – FACT: focus on empirically verifiable occurrences – JUDGEMENT / VALUE: involving opinions, attitudes, and subjective evaluations – POLICY: advocating courses of action that should be undertaken Which claim best addresses the prompt? Grounds: “What is your proof?” • Grounds refers to the proof or EVIDENCE an arguer offers • Grounds can consists of: – Statistics – Quotations – Reports – Findings – Physical evidence – Forms of reasoning How you categorize your evidence… Remember: Think: Capital Punishment 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Political Legal Historical Psychological Values 6. Economic 7. Pragmatic 8. Sociological 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. The American public voted for it It’s the law/It shouldn’t be the law It has/has not worked in the past Most prisoners on death row were abused children It is right (eye for an eye)/It is not right (two wrongs don’t make a right) It’s too expensive to kill prisoners/to keep prisoners in jail It doesn’t work/It’s a pragmatic deterrent A large number of people on death row are poor and people of color Last move: Warrant • Warrant is the inferential leap that connects the claim to the grounds. • Example: I am running a high temperature. I bet I have an infection. – A fever is often a sign of an infection – I could just be hot. – It could be nothing, but logically it is a fever caused by an infection. Bad example of a Warrant • example: “I have an “F” in English because I think the teacher hates me.” • It would be more reasonable to connect failing to bad grades on assignments, zeroes, a bad attitude, a lack of skill or even care. • One could fail and still be liked. • One could pass and not be liked. • One does not have much or anything to do with the other. Warrant (last one) • Example: That dog is probably friendly. It is a Golden Retriever. • • • • Warrants can be based on: Ethos Logos Pathos Altogether Now Claim: • Most modern people would claim to be proud of the freedoms this nation offers; however, average people have proven themselves more than willing to give up these freedoms to ensure personal security. Grounds (evidence): • In 2010 a poll asked Americans if the gov’t had gone too far restricting civil liberties: • 25% said “yes” • 63% said “no” Warrant (logic that connects claim to grounds) A majority of Americans understand that measures need to be taken for personal and national security that have not been previously taken. The status quo failed; thus, The Patriot Act was both necessary and welcomed by the public.