Urban Issues Chapter 9 Definitions Cultural Diffusion Economic Base Megacity Urban Growth Urbanization Decentralization Suburbanization Counter-urbanization Infrastructure Over-urbanization Fiscal squeeze Squatter settlements Threshold population Primate city People Shifting Why do people urbanize? What would be reasons for people to move from the centre of cities to the suburbs? POPULATION SHIFT Two hundred years ago 5% of the world’s pop. (980 million) was urbanized. Now 47% is urbanized. Canada’s Urbanization figures Can anyone find a the problem with this figure of 47% urbanization? Different countries have different criteria for recognizing an area as being urbanized. Canada and Australia population greater than 1000 Italy Greater than 10,000 Japan Greater than 50,000 Stats can’t be taken too seriously. What is a Megacity? A city that has a population over 8 million people. Issues in Megacities Come up with some of the major issues that megacities would face. Crime Sanitation Housing Over crowding All forms of pollution ??? Squatter settlements Shanghai Mexico City Sao Paulo Brazil Rio de Janeiro Jakarta Cairo Urban Problems Activity COMMONGLOBALURBANPROBLEMS 1. Identify the most serious urban problems that you think cities face in all parts of the world. 2. Imagine that you are the mayor of the community in which you live. The UN has asked you to rank the top 14 urban problems in your community in order of their severity, from the most to the least severe. Compare your list with those of your classmates. 3. The United Nations Development Program asked mayors around the world to rank the top 14 urban problems in their communities. a) How does your list compare to that of the world mayors? b) Which problems did you not identify? c) Did you identify problems not on this list? 4. a) Now imagine that you are the mayor of a large city in a Near Core or Far Periphery country Re-rank these 14 problems in order of their severity b) How does your list differ from the list you made in question 2? Explain any differences. Figure 9-11 The cities of the world face a wide range of seemingly insoluble challenges ranging from gridlocked traffic to urban decay. Problems with Urbanization In developing countries people flock to urban areas before any economic growth or infrastructure has been put in place, this leads to unpleasant conditions. What are the problems of growing Urban areas? Read page 32 and 33. Answer question 9 on 33 Quality of Life comparison 1. 2. 3. 4. Life in Peru to life in Canada (old text) How would you have answer Luis’ two questions? If you were in Luis’ position, how would you feel about leaving your family behind, if you were able to go to North America? Do you believe Luis’ has a moral obligation to remain with his family? Why? What obligations do we as Canadians have to people in other parts of the world who are less fortunate than us? Intro Our exposure to information by mass media tells us of events, conditions and issues in places all over the world. It is nearly impossible to remain ignorant to the horrors of starvation and the living conditions of people around the world. If you have been able to travel to different places around the world you may have seen this first hand. Within Canada we can see various lifestyles and issues that are facing others around the world. Have vs. Have Nots What do we mean by these? We know that most of the wealthy countries in the North and most of the poorer countries are in the South. Why might this be? What advantages might the North have over the South? Housing Stability Technology Information Fewer critical Diseases Poverty facts to ponder The World Bank estimated that if rich nations gave $12.5 billion to the poorer nations for 10 years, all the people’s basic needs would be met. Each year people in the rich nations spend approx $100 billion on alcohol. Americans spend more on cosmetics per year than the budgets of all the African countries. Half the world — nearly three billion people — live on less than two dollars a day. The GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of the poorest 48 nations (i.e. a quarter of the world’s countries) is less than the wealth of the world’s three richest people combined. Less than one per cent of what the world spent every year on weapons was needed to put every child into school by the year 2000 and yet it didn't happen. 20% of the population in the developed nations, consume 86% of the world’s goods. “The lives of 1.7 million children will be needlessly lost this year  because world governments have failed to reduce poverty levels” Some 1.1 billion people in developing countries have inadequate access to water, and 2.6 billion lack basic sanitation. Some 1.8 million child deaths each year as a result of diarrhea Number of children in the world 2.2 billion Number in poverty 1 billion (every second child) Global Spending Global Priority $U.S. Billions Cosmetics in the United States Ice cream in Europe Perfumes in Europe and the United States Pet foods in Europe and the United States 8 11 12 17 Business entertainment in Japan Cigarettes in Europe Alcoholic drinks in Europe 35 50 105 Narcotics drugs in the world Military spending in the world 400 780 Urban Issues in Developed Countries Do activity on p.136 (new book) Economic Problems Fiscal squeeze – not enough tax $ to pay for the services. Businesses moved from inner city to outer areas taking tax dollars. (This has meant roads, water, sewer, buildings deteriorate.) Governments have had to bail them out. P.135 Social problems Poverty – 20% of urban dwellers live below poverty line. Number of homeless has increased drastically since 1980’s because of welfare cutbacks. Shortage of affordable housing. Environmental Increase in # of vehicles means increase in pollution. We live in a “Throw away society”. Perceived and planned obsolescence Problems in Urban Areas in Developing Countries Economic Problems Low wage jobs – shoe shine, begging, selling souvenirs. Leads to high prostitution. Child labour Huge gaps between rich and poor. Hard to offer services to public Schools, transportation systems, social services Social Problems Squatter settlements - Illegally set up settlements on land and do not pay rent. Very poor living conditions – no sewers, water or electricity . Slum Dwellers – pay rent Poor living conditions High sick rates High Infant mortality Poverty Crime World Bank gives aid to assist in educating and providing healthcare. Squatter Settlements Environmental Natural Disasters hit them the hardest because of the poorly constructed buildings. Sites next to industrial areas are very susceptible to toxins and air pollutants. Developing countries usually have very poorly maintained vehicles and unregulated gas leading to pollution. (CO, CO2, lead, NO2,) Infrastructure supplying clean drinking water is usually connected to infrastructure dealing with disposal of waste. (Much of the sewage in poor urban areas still runs into ditches beside roads and flows into rivers used for drinking.) 3rd World Drinking Water Clean water 3 million people die every year due to waterborne diseases caused by unclean water, 90% are children under the age of 5.