World History 8 Chapter 12 section 2 – “The Mongol Conquests

World History 8
Chapter 12 section 2 – “The Mongol Conquests”
Nomads of the Asian Steppe
1. What qualities did the Mongols possess?
Skill on horseback, discipline, ruthlessness, courage in battle
Also wanted the wealth and glory that came from conquering mighty empires
2. What are the steppes? What steppe did the Mongols inhabit and where was it?
 Vast belt of dry grassland
 Eastern steppe which covers present day Mongolia
3. What are pastoralists?
Nomadic people who herd domesticated animals – constantly on move searching for good
pasture lands; followed seasonal patterns, returning to same campsites on regular basis
4. What are clans?
 Kinship groups that steppe nomads travelled in
 Members descended from a same ancestor
 Several would come together when necessary to attack or defend
5. Why did nomadic peoples often invade towns and villages?
Tempted by rich land and relative wealth of towns; particularly attacked weakened empires
The Rise of the Mongols
6. Who was Genghis Khan? (Remember, this questions means what is he known for/why is he
important in history!)
 Mongol clan leader who unified the various Mongols under one rule (1200)
 Led Mongols in conquering much of Asia
7. By 1225, Genghis Khan controlled Central Asia. How did he gain that control?
 Campaign of terror
 Destroying cities
 Brilliant organization of armies into groups
 Strategies – tricks
 Cruelty as weapon (slaughter entire towns) – people would surrender even before
The Mongol Empire
8. Look at the map on page 334. Describe the size of the Mongol Empire at its height in 1294.
Include borders to the north, south, east, and west. Approximately how many miles was if from
east to west?
 Russian border to west and China to East
 Russia in north to border with India, Vietnam, Persian Empire to South
 About 4,000 Miles
9. In the 1250s, what area did Genghis Khan’s sons conquer? What did they do with that area?
Northern China and Korea
Divide into 4 khanates
10. Describe the Mongols as rulers.
Ferocious in war, but tolerant in peace
Didn’t impose their beliefs or way of life
Sometimes adopted aspects of culture they took over
11. What was the Pax Mongolica? (Don’t just tell me the translation of the words…EXPLAIN what
it was and what occurred during that period!)
 Period of stability and peace under Mongol rule from mid-1200s to mid-1300s
 Safe for trade between Europe and Asia to flourish
 Ideas and inventions moved along trade routes (gunpowder reached Europe)
 Bubonic plague spread along trade routes, too