9 - Mexico Relations & Gold Rush

In ONE sentence, discuss
Americans in the mid1800’s moved.
1) Describe how Texas gained its independence.
2) Describe the attitudes about War with Mexico.
3) Describe the key battles of the Mexican-American War.
4) Identify U.S. territories gained from Mexico.
Mexico was enjoying their independence from Spain in 1821. Mexico soon learned that
having such a large territory made it difficult to protect its borders from thieves and Native
American attacks.
The Mexican government invited U.S. settlers to buy land grants for cheap. The only rules
were that these Americans had to follow Mexican Law and observe Roman Catholicism
(Mexico’s national religion).
By 1824, the population of Americans surpassed the pop. of Mexicans in Texas.
In 1824, Mexico frees all slaves and abolishes slavery.
In 1830, Mexico closed their border to Americans & placed tariffs on American goods.
Stephen Austin won an appeal in court and the borders opened & increased Texas self-govt.
In 1833, Mexican govt. arrested Austin for “starting a revolution”
Austin had been fighting for
Texas self-government for years.
The Mexican President sent in
4,000 troops to ensure the
Texans would follow Mexican
In 1835, the Texans attacked the
Mexican forces, pushing them
back. The Mexican forces came
back and crushed the Texans
(Americans) at the Alamo (Davy
In 1836, Sam Houston
attacked the Mexican
army under the battle cry
“Remember the Alamo!”
September 1836, the
Treaty of Velasco was
signed, granting Texas its
(Republic of Texas)
In 1838, Sam Houston invited the United
States to annex (to make a part of) the
Republic of Texas into the United States.
James K. Polk added Texas as the 28th
state on December 29th, 1845.
This led Mexico to pull their ambassador
from Washington, D.C.
In 1845, Polk sends an ambassador to Mexico to discuss buying California/New Mexico area
and to set up the Rio Grande river as the Texas/Mexico border.
The Mexican government refuses to meet with the American ambassador.
Polk sends General Zachary Taylor to blockade the Rio Grande River.
The Mexican government sends their army toward the Rio Grande River…
A small fight breaks out  9 Americans were killed
Polk uses the
idea that
blood was
shed on
American soil
to convince
Congress to
declare war
on Mexico.
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo signed February 1848.
• Rio Grande is the Texas – Mexico border
• California is now an American territory
• US will pay $15 million for: New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Nevada
5 years later, the United States would
pay $10 million to Mexico for the
Gadsden territory.
In late 1848, a man working in a saw mill found gold in the soil…
- Population increase
- New money
- Slavery or Non-slavery?