In ONE sentence, discuss - WHY - HOW - WHERE Americans in the mid1800’s moved. 1) Describe how Texas gained its independence. 2) Describe the attitudes about War with Mexico. 3) Describe the key battles of the Mexican-American War. 4) Identify U.S. territories gained from Mexico. Mexico was enjoying their independence from Spain in 1821. Mexico soon learned that having such a large territory made it difficult to protect its borders from thieves and Native American attacks. The Mexican government invited U.S. settlers to buy land grants for cheap. The only rules were that these Americans had to follow Mexican Law and observe Roman Catholicism (Mexico’s national religion). By 1824, the population of Americans surpassed the pop. of Mexicans in Texas. In 1824, Mexico frees all slaves and abolishes slavery. In 1830, Mexico closed their border to Americans & placed tariffs on American goods. Stephen Austin won an appeal in court and the borders opened & increased Texas self-govt. In 1833, Mexican govt. arrested Austin for “starting a revolution” Austin had been fighting for Texas self-government for years. The Mexican President sent in 4,000 troops to ensure the Texans would follow Mexican law. In 1835, the Texans attacked the Mexican forces, pushing them back. The Mexican forces came back and crushed the Texans (Americans) at the Alamo (Davy Crockett). In 1836, Sam Houston attacked the Mexican army under the battle cry “Remember the Alamo!” September 1836, the Treaty of Velasco was signed, granting Texas its independence. (Republic of Texas) In 1838, Sam Houston invited the United States to annex (to make a part of) the Republic of Texas into the United States. James K. Polk added Texas as the 28th state on December 29th, 1845. This led Mexico to pull their ambassador from Washington, D.C. In 1845, Polk sends an ambassador to Mexico to discuss buying California/New Mexico area and to set up the Rio Grande river as the Texas/Mexico border. The Mexican government refuses to meet with the American ambassador. Polk sends General Zachary Taylor to blockade the Rio Grande River. The Mexican government sends their army toward the Rio Grande River… A small fight breaks out 9 Americans were killed Polk uses the idea that American blood was shed on American soil to convince Congress to declare war on Mexico. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo signed February 1848. • Rio Grande is the Texas – Mexico border • California is now an American territory • US will pay $15 million for: New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Nevada 5 years later, the United States would pay $10 million to Mexico for the Gadsden territory. In late 1848, a man working in a saw mill found gold in the soil… - Population increase - New money - Slavery or Non-slavery?